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BIRDS 



OF 



BRTTISK fMIUSEUM 
tf¥ TORY) 

25 OCT 1993 
E), : "D 

TRING LIBRARY 



SOUTH SUDAN 



Gerhard Nikolaus 



Scopus Special Supplement Number 3 



Birds 

of 

South 

Sudan 



BIRDS 
OF 



25 OCT 1£33 
imm LIBRARY 



SOUTH SUDAN 



Gerhard Nikolaus 



K 



Scopus Special Supplement Number 3 



to aim? a 



Nairobi: Ornithological Sub-Committee, EANHS 



© Gerhard Nikolaus, 1989 

Bosenbiittel 4, D-2859 Spieka, Federal Republic of Germany 



Published by the Ornithological Sub-Committee 
of the East Africa Natural History Society and 
available from D.A. Turner, P.O. Box 48019, 
Nairobi, Kenya. 



Printed in Kenya by 

English Press, Enterprise Road 

P.O. Box 30127 Nairobi. 




Turdus fischeri maxis Nikolaus 1982 




Map of the South Sudan 





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Map of the South Sudan showing main vegetational areas 



CONTENTS 

Introduction 1 

Topography and Climate 2 

Habitats 2 

Status 3 

Order and Nomenclature 5 

Acknowledgements . . 5 

Species Recorded 7 

Gazetteer 99 

References 101 

Index of Scientific Names 105 

Index of English Names 116 



INTRODUCTION 



Ornitho logically, the Sudan was one of the better known parts of Africa 
early this century, for the mystery of the Nile had attracted natural 
historians for a number of decades previously. However, most early 
work was based in the north, and the southern areas became known mainly 
as a result of collecting by Emin Pasha in the 1880s and the work of 
F.O. Cave and J.D. MacDonald in the 1930s and 1940s. Field work in 
this region has always been hampered by a long rainy season, with 
difficult roads and supply, disease and a variety of unpleasant biting 
insects. Ten years ago there were still large gaps in knowledge 
concerning the range of races, breeding season, moult cycles and 
Palaearctic migration through the area. 

In 1972 the Southern Region came under an independent administrat- 
ion based at Juba and covering the three old provinces of Equatoria, 
Bahr-el-Ghazel and Upper Nile. This region, which came to be called 
the 'South Sudan' became much more accessible at this time and offered 
new scope for discovery to ornithologists now equipped with a greater 
background understanding of African avifaunas and migration systems, 
and armed with the technique of mist-netting. Several observers were 
resident for short spells over the following decade, and the author 
and his wife spent the four years 1976-1980 based at Imatong, but 
travelled widely throughout the region whilst undertaking a comprehen- 
sive ornithological survey. Several species were added to the South 
Sudan list, one new subspecies (of the Spotted Ground Thrush Turdus 
fischeri) was discovered, and a better understanding of migration 
through the region was established. 

This work briefly reviews the distribution and occurrence of 790 
species which can be accepted for the South Sudan list. In addition 
another 61 species are discussed, either because they have been claimed 
in the past, but are no longer acceptable, or because they occur so 
close to the region's border that their future addition to the list 
seems highly likely. The South Sudan can boast more species than the 
other countries in the Soudan belt of Africa. This is due to the 
existence within the region of a variety of habitats, for it embraces 
the edge of the Ethiopian highlands, part of the Turkana desert and 
representatives of both West and East African rain forests. 
To continue the uniform treatment of ornithological literature in 
eastern Africa this work has been modelled on Birds of East Africa 
(Britton 1980) . 

Throughout their study the author and his wife were sponsored by 
the Alexander Koenig Museum in Bonn and the Naturkunde Museum in 
Stuttgart. They also received generous support from the Sudan Wild- 
life Administration, and it is hoped that this work will be of use in 
the future management and protection of a valuable resource, the 
beautiful birds of the South Sudan. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE 



South Sudan lies in northeastern Africa between approximately 4°N and 
12°N, and between 24°E and 36°E and has an area of 684 000 km 2 . 
It consists mainly of the large Nile basin known as the Sudd, but also 
includes part of the Ethiopian highlands, the Turkana desert, the 
Albertine Rift Valley, the Zaire rain forest and the West African tree 
savanna. The three mountains, Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga rise 
along the Uganda border to 3180 m, but otherwise the altitude of the 
mainly flat country lies between 400 and 800 m, rising towards the 
southern border. The White Nile and Sobat rivers bring water from 
Uganda and Ethiopia respectively. South Sudan is rich in cattle and 
game and has various National Parks and Game Reserves. Much of the 
country is sparsely populated open grassland or tree savanna, but 
fairly intensive agriculture exists along the southern border. 

Most of the country has a mean annual rainfall of 800-1500 mm, but 
more than 2000 mm is experienced on the southern mountains and less 
than 400 mm near Lake Turkana. There is generally a single rainy 
season, lasting from April/May to September. However, in the extreme 
southeast, in the Turkana basin, there are two short rainy seasons, in 
April/May and November/December. 



HABITATS 

WETLANDS comprise a dominant habitat, especially during and after the 
rainy season. The largest area is the 'Sudd', one of Africa's most 
important wetlands, fed by the Nile and its major tributaries, the 
Bahr el Arab, Bahr el Ghazal, Lol, Sue, Jur and Sobat. The Sudd has a 
large inundation zone with seasonally tall grassland, a floating vege- 
tation of reeds, grass, papyrus and water hyacinth, and a variable area 
of open water. The complex is seriously endangered by the construction 
of the Jongolei canal. Elsewhere seasonal wetlands result from the 
flooding of grassland. 

GRASSLANDS are found in four types of major importance: The Sudd inun- 
dation zone is largely covered by tall grassland during and immediately 
after the rains, but this is regularly burnt off towards the end of the 
calendar year by the cattle-owning people. The soil in the whole Nile 
basin is black 'cotton 1 clay. Semi arid areas exist in the extreme 
southeast and around Renk in the north, and here there are patches of 
open short grassland within Acacia bushland. Patches of short grass 
also exist within the tree savanna in the southwest, in ironstone areas 
with poor soil. Finally, luxuriant short grass grows above 1800 m on 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga, mainly on the northern sides of the 
mountains. Only in recent years has this been regularly burnt in conn- 
ection with the extension of agricultural activity. 

BUSH - AND TREE SAVANNA: The Acacia bushland in the semi-arid north 
and southeast sometimes forms small Acacia forests along larger seasonal 
river-banks (Khors) . More importantly, however, almost half of the 
South Sudan, the area west and south of the Sudd, and the Ethiopian 
highland, is covered by broad-leaved tree savanna or open bushland with 
seasonal tall grass. Nearer to the south and southwest borders this 



often forms better developed woodland and local forest patches. 

LOWLAND FORESTS: The only true lowland forests exist around the Imatong 
Mountains. The three areas concerned, the Talanga, Lotti and Laboni 
forests, are endangered by forestry ana agricultural developments. 
A number of larger forest patches also exist west of the Nile. These 
are mainly gallery forests, but some, the so-called 'bowl forests' of 
Cave and MacDonald cover larger pans . The main examples are along the 
Kajiko River on the Aloma Plateau, the Aza Forest near Maridi, along the 
Zaire border near Yambio, and at Bengengai. These western forests are 
also threatened by development. 

HIGHLAND FOREST is confined to the upper slopes of the three mountains 
along the Uganda border. The forests on Didinga and Dongotona are very 
small, but Imatong is heavily forested at all altitudes. There are 
three major types: Albizia - Croton - Macaranga from 1600 to 2400 m, 
Podocarpus up to 3000 m and a small patch of Ericacea on Mt. Kinyetti 
above 3000 m which, Ihowever, has been practically destroyed in recent 
years by regular fires. Most of the Imatong forest is still primary, 
and forestry activities, including the planting of pine and cypress, 
are limited to the northern edge around Gilo in the Upper Kinyetti river 
basin. Here, secondary growth, cultivations and plantations are the 
major habitats. 



STATUS 

1. MIGRATORY STATUS. The following abbreviations are given in the 
heading of each species: PMW = overwintering Palaearctic migrant; 
PMP = Palaearctic passage migrant; AM = intra-African migrant (Sudan 
birds have a distinct seasonal migration within the Afrotropical Region, 
usually across the equator) ; LM - local migrant (although distinct 
migrations are not well established the species is only present season- 
ally, at least in some localities) ; R= resident (present throughout 
the year and presumed to breed) ; V = vagrant (probably extralimital, 
known from very few records) . A question mark indicates that the mig- 
ratory status given is speculative. 

2. BREEDING STATUS. Except in the case of Palaearctic visitors, each 
species is shown as either BR = breeding recorded (followed by breeding 
months based on observed or estimated egg-laying time) or NBR - no 
breeding records. When a breeding month is given in brackets, breeding 
is only presumed (e.g. birds in breeding condition) but not confirmed. 

3. ABUNDANCE. The following terms are used to denote decreasing num- 
erical categories; abundant (many seen each day in the appropriate 
habitat) ; common (a few most days) ; fairly common (a few per month) ; 
uncommon (a few each year) and rare. These are somewhat subjective 
impressions, but provide useful indications and comparisons. 



DISTRIBUTION 

During the period 1976 - 1980 the author visited all parts of the Region, 
and special effort was made to survey every major locality and habitat 
at least once during both the wet and dry season. Areas most often 
visited were Imatong, Juba, Maridi and Wau. Distributional data for the 
whole of the Sudan has been plotted in Atlas form using a 1° X 1° square 
grid (Nikolaus 1987) . In the present work distributional descriptions 
on the South Sudan are given in greater detail, forming the bulk of the 
species accounts. Sufficient reference to place names and topographical 
features is given for a species * known range in the Region to be easily 
interpreted. Apart from the southern mountains and major rivers there 
are few striking topographical features, and distribution patterns tend 
to be uncomplicated. Species often range over large areas of similar 
habitat, so that relatively few localities need be given. For example: 
'southwest of Aweil - Wau - Juba' would imply occurrence throughout the 
southwestern tree savanna area. The species accounts need to be read 
in conjunction with Maps 1 and 2, and with the gazetteer. Compass 
points and 'central' are usually abbreviated to N, S, C etc. when used 
to delimit an area which is part of a larger named area, but the words 
are given in full when used in other contexts. Mountain (s) is abbrev- 
iated to Mt(s); the words river and lake are given in full. 



SOURCES OF DATA 

This work is based largely on observations made by the author and his 
wife during continuous fieldwork between 1976 and 1980 (Nikolaus 1979a, 
b; 1982 a, b) , during which distributional data were routinely plotted 
on a 1 ° square grid, and intensive netting and ringing produced inform- 
ation on rarer species, on migratory status (Nikolaus & Backhurst 1982) 
and on the distribution of different races (Nikolaus in prep.). 
To assist in racial determination about 1000 specimens were collected, 
and these are now housed in the Naturkunde Museum Stuttqart and the 
Alexander Koenig Museum Bonn (v.d.Elzen and Konig 1983) . Also included 
here are recent data kindly supplied by the Chicago Field Museum (Imatong/ 
Bengengai, February /March 1976; Traylor & Archer 1982 and in litt.) ; 
the Copenhagen Museum (Imatong, November /December 1980; F.P. Jensen 
in litt.) ; and recent field observations from P.J. Dare (November/December 
1960), J.S. Fairclough (Mbili/Wau 1981, 1982); J.C. & S Hillman (Bengengai 
1980, 1981) ; F.R. Lambert (Nile and Imatong March /April 1983; and H. Lege 
(November 1981/January 1982) . Most of the 'old' literature reviewed by 
Cave & MacDonald has been included, as also have data from the collection 
at the Khartoum Natural History Museum (Bowen 1926, 1931) and from the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.) at Tring, from the African Atlasses of Hall & 
Moreau (1970) and Snow (1978) , and from field notes of F.O. Cave (Wau 1955;, 
files in the British Museum) . 

In addition to the author's own records, breeding data are from 
Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1952, 1955), which included most of the 'old' 
English literature, Koenig (1911, 1926), M.A. Traylor (in litt.) and 
F.O. Cave (files in the British Museum) . 



Considerable efforts have been made to trace original old sources, 
although only major publications are included in the references. 
Because of the space available for the species accounts, references are 
only given to support records or statements of special interest, but a 
more detailed bibliography is available from the author. 



ORDER AND NOMENCLATURE 

The order and nomenclature followed is generally that used by Britton 
(1980). Thus, nomenclature is essentially based on White (1960, 1961, 
1962a, b, 1963, 1965), though Vaurie (1959,1965) is usually followed 
for Palaearctic species. Order of families is that of Wetmore (1960) 
as modified by Benson et al. (1970) , and of sub- families within families 
that of Thompson (1964) . Genera and species are listed alphabetically. 



FORMAT OF SPECIES IN THE LIST 

Each species is listed under a family heading (and Sub-family heading 
where appropriate) with information given in the following sequence : 

a. Sequential number on the Sudan list (this number is used in the 
index, not the page number) . Comments are included on species not 
yet recorded, but expected to occur in the Sudan, and on species 
formerly listed but no longer considered acceptable; these species 
are included in the systematic list but are not numbered. 

b. Scientific name for the species. 

c. English name (generally those used in Britton 1980) . 

d. For ease of cross-reference, the species number in Mackworth-Praed 
& Grant (1952, 1955) is shown on the right hand side. 

e. The suggested status is given (PMW, PMP, AM, LM, R, V). 

f . Breeding status is given for all Afrotropical species (BR, NBR) , 
together with months of breeding. 

g. A concise resume of known distribution, status, abundance and times 
of occurrence is given, with information on each sub-species 
occurring in the region. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Even though few people were able to supply new field data, there have 
been a great number helping in many ways. My wife Minna assisted me 
in the field in the South Sudan for four years. Hans Rupp has to be 
specially mentioned because we completed many field trips together 
until his unfortunate death in 1979 during the course of his work on 



the small mammals of South Sudan. For valuable field data and other 
comments I would like to thank A.L. Archer, Mrs Barker, J.S. Fairclough, 
C. & S. Hillman, F.R. Lambert, H. Lege, F.P. Jensen and M.A. Traylor, 
and especially P.L. Britton and P.J. Dare who gave valuable comments on 
an earlier draft of this manuscript. For assistance in the identific- 
ations of skins and notes on literature I am grateful to the late 
C.W. Benson, P.R. Colston, G.R. Cunningham- van Someren, Dr. R. v.d.Elzen, 
Dr. C.H. Fry, J. Fryxell, I.C.J. Galbraith, A. Guillet, P. Hogg, 
Dr. C. Konig, Dr. M. Louette, Dr. J. Nikolai, R. Schlenker and 
Dr. H. Wolters; also to Dr. E. Schiiz who helped in various other ways as 
well. Very essential was the assistance given by various individuals in 
Khartoum and Juba, especially Mr. Abu Sineina, Dr. El Rayah, H. Minga and 
C. Acire. John Blower recommended me to the Wildlife Department, whose 
support proved basic to the whole work. Last but not least D.J. Pearson 
and G.C. Backhurst commented on the manuscript and finally edited it. Man- 
thanks to them and to any others not mentioned who helped in one way or 
another. 



Gerhard Nikolaus , Bosenbuttel 4, 2859 Spieka , F.R. Germany. 



SPECIES RECORDED 

Family STRUTHIONIDAE Ostrich 

1. Struthio camelus Ostrich 1 
R LM BR (1, 3, 10) 

The race camelus is uncommon in the tree savanna and open grassland 
north of a line from Juba to Wau, decreasing in numbers though 
locally still common. A 1980 game count in Boma Park gave 2150 for 
the dry season and 1300 for the wet season. 

Family PODICIPEDIDAE Grebes 

2. Tachybaptis ruficollis Little Grebe 4 
R? LM AM? NBR 

The race capensis is uncommon on large waters. Probably breeding 
on the White Nile and Lake No. All records are from October - 
April. Some are possibly resident. Birds in April in Aweil were 
on passage. 

Family PELECANIDAE Pelicans 

3. Pelecanus onocrotalus White Pelican 31 
AM PMW? NBR 

The few records are all in January, from the Nile, Sobat and Lol 
Rivers. The origin of these birds is unknown. 

4. Pelecanus rufescens Pink -backed Pelican 

R LM BR (1, 2) 

Fairly common throughout on all suitable waters; more common in 

winter. 

Family PHALACROCARIDAE Cormorants 

5. Phalacrocorax africanus Long- tailed Cormorant 27 
R? LM NBR 

The nominate race is common in the dry season on any waters but 
moves north with the rains. Hundreds roost at Lake No. 

Phalacrocorax carbo Cormorant 25 

The only record, from Wau, needs confirmation. Probably a rare 
visitor to large rivers. 

Family ANHINGIDAE Darters 

6. Anhinga rufa Darter 28 
R LM BR (8, 9) 

The nominate race is a common resident on rivers and larger waters 
throughout . 

Family ARDEIDAE Herons, Bitterns, Egrets 

Most species vacate the large Sudd area in the rainy season, probably 
moving to the northern savanna or Eurasia for breeding. The year-round 
occurrence of several species around Aweil suggests that some breed 
locally. 



Sub-family Botaurinae 

Botaurus stellaris Bittern 52 

The Palaearctic nominate race probably reaches South Sudan. It is 
known as a rare winter visitor to the North, while there is a 
single record from Uelle in NE Zaire . 

7. Ixobrychus minutus Little Bittern 50 
PMP R? LM NBR 

Uncommon in swamps and reedbeds. The exact status of the two races 
is not known. There are specimens of payesii from Maridi and 
Tambura, while several examples of the Palaearctic nominate race 
were caught in October at the Baro River in neighbouring Ethiopia. 

8. Ixobrychus sturmii Dwarf Bittern 51 
R? LM? NBR 

Uncommon throughout. There are dated records from Aweil (September) 
Wau (March), Boma (February) and Torit (November).. No information 
about seasonal movements. 

Sub-family Ardeinae 

9. Ardea cinerea Grey Heron 33 
PMW R? NBR 

The nominate race is a fairly common Palaearctic visitor from 
October to March to marshy places. A few oversummer, but breeding 
has not yet been reported. 

10. Ardea goliath Goliath Heron 35 
R? LM BR (11, 12) 

Common in the dry season on larger rivers with deep water, where it 
breeds, moving north during the rains. 

11. Ardea melanocephala Black-headed Heron 34 
R LM NBR 

Common throughout in a variety of open habitats, especially as a 
dry season visitor. It breeds in the North Sudan from June to 
August. 

12. Ardea purpurea Purple Heron 3£ 
PMW R? BR (5) 

The nominate race arrives in September as a locally common Palae- 
arctic visitor along the Nile in the Sudd. Few are seen in summer. 
Once reported breeding near Shambe. 

13. Ardeola ralloides Squacco Heron 4 J 
PMW LM? NBR 

The nominate race is a common Palaearctic visitor to marshes and 
swamps, mainly from September to February; less common in March- 
April. A few probably oversummer. 

14. Ardeola ibis Cattle Egret 4 
R? AM NBR 

The nominate race is a very common bird throughout, often 
accompanying cattle or game. Most birds leave in summer, presumabl 
for the North Sudan for breeding. It is likely that they also bree 
in the northern part of South Sudan. 



15. Butorides striatus Green-backed Heron 45 
R LM? NBR 

The race atricapillus is an uncommon but widespread resident of 
rivers and swamps with dense fringing vegetation. Seasonal 
movements need confirmation. 

16. Egretta alba Great White Egret 37 
PMW R? LM NBR 

The race melanorhynchos is fairly common, mainly associated with 
larger rivers and lakes. Nearly all dated records are for the 
period September to April. They occur throughout the year. 

17. Egretta ardesiaca Black Heron 39 
R? NBR 

There are only five records, from Aweng, north of the River Lol, 
Aweil, Sobat and Lado. It frequents creeks and rivers. 

18. Egretta garzetta Little Egret 40 
PMW LM NBR 

The nominate race is common in wetland habitats. All dated records 
are for the period August to April. 

19. Egretta intermedia Yellow-billed Egret 38 
R? LM NBR 

The race brachyrhyncha is a non-breeding visitor to swamps and 
marshes. Mainly absent from May to August. It is less common east 
of the Nile. 

20. Gorsachius leuconotus White-backed Night Heron 49 
R? AM? NBR 

Rare, and possibly only a non-breeding visitor. Once recorded from 
Maridi in February. This species of thick bush vegetation with 
trees along rivers is common in NE Zaire, and there are records from 
the Baro River in Ethiopia. 

21. Nycticorax nycticorax Night Heron 48 
PMW R LM BR (5, 6) 

The nominate race is fairly common throughout around wetlands. 
Breeding is reported from Aweil and Shambe. Concentrations in very 
large roosts at Lake No and the Sobat River in January/February are 
most probably Palaearctic visitors . 

Family BALAENICIPITIDAE Shoebill 

22. Balaeniceps rex Shoebill 54 
R BR (1, 9 - 12) 

A resident of the Sudd, much endangered by destruction of papyrus 
and heavy cattle grazing. Recent counts gave about 6000 birds with 
the biggest population in the River Lol area and the Bahr-el-Zeral 
Game Reserve. 

Family SCOPIDAE Hamerkop 

. Scopus umbretta Hamerkop 53 

R LM NBR 

The nominate race is a common resident throughout wherever there is 
water, preferably stagnant pools. Recorded up to 3000m in the 
Imatong Mountains . 



Family CICONIIDAE Storks 

Sub-family Ciconiinae 

24. Anastomus lamelligerus Open-billed Stork 59 
AM R? BR (6, 7) 

The nominate race is a very common dry season visitor throughout, 
avoiding only large tracts of dense forest. Exceptional numbers 
are seen after bush- fires in the Sudd. Birds in the Nimule region 
August to October probably originate from nearby breeding colonies. 
Breeding possibly occurs around Aweil. 

25. Ciconia abdimii Abdim's Stork 58 
AM LM? BR (4,5) 

A breeding visitor in the rains. The main breeding area is in 
North Sudan, but a few pairs breed in Juba, Bor, Rumbek and the 
northern parts of the area. Large numbers are seen on passage 
in April, fewer on southward passage in September and October. 
Some birds frequent open grasslands in the Sudd and the southeast 
through the dry season. 

26. Ciconia ciconia White Stork 55 
PMW PMP 

The nominate race is an uncommon Palaearctic visitor to swamps and 
grasslands, mainly from November to February. There is a marked 
southward passage in October and November. 

27. Ciconia episcopus Woolly-necked Stork 57 
LM AM BR (1, 2, 11, 12) 

The race microscelis is a breeding visitor to open country in South 
Sudan in the dry season. Numbers are always small, sometimes 
frequenting burnt grassland. There are no records from forest 
areas along the Zaire border. 

28. Ciconia nigra Black Stork 56 
PMW 

This Palaearctic migrant is an uncommon winter visitor. All records 
are of single birds, from Tonj (January), Juba (March), the Imatong 
Mountains (December, April) , Nimule (January) and Bengengai. 

29. Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Saddle-billed Stork 60 
R BR (1, 9 - 12) 

Fairly common throughout, nearly always in pairs, at larger swamps 
with permanent water. So far, breeding is only confirmed from the 
Upper Nile region, but recently fledged birds seen in February and 
April suggest more widespread breeding. 

30. Leptoptilos crumeniferus Marabou 61 
R LM BR (1, 10 - 12) 

A widespread and common breeding visitor. Some of the twenty or 
more documented breeding colonies are small; but the largest, at 
Thiet, has at least 100 pairs. Concentrations are a feature of 
bush- fires and drying waterpools late in the dry season (February 
to March). Few remain during the rains. 



10 



Sub-family Mycteriinae 

31. Mycteria ibis Yellow-billed Stork 62 
R LM BR (10 - 12) 

Uncommon, frequenting marshes and rivers with permanent water. 
Two breeding colonies are known at Ayod and Jebel Kasangor. 
Breeding is also suspected at Aweil. Most or all vacate South 
Sudan during the rains (May - September) and migrate north. 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE Ibises, Spoonbills 

Sub- family Threskiornithinae 

32. Bostrychia hagedash Hadada 65 
R. NBR 

The race brevirostris is a common resident throughout. It favours 
wooded localities near swamps and rivers. 

33. Plegadis falcinellus Glossy Ibis 68. 
PMW PMP? AM? NBR 

The nominate race is a rather uncommon winter visitor in small 
numbers to large swamps, recorded from Malakal , Lake No, Aweil, 
Kongor and Juba. Up to 500 arrive in Aweil and Kosti in August. 
Numbers decrease markedly in early September. These, and regular 
November/December flocks of 50 - 100 in the Imatong Mountains are 
probably Palaearctic breeders on southward passage. 

34. Threskiornis aethiopica Sacred Ibis 63 
LM NBR 

The nominate race is a very common non-breeding visitor in the 

dry season, likely to occur at any site. It breeds in North Sudan. 

There are no records during the period May - July. 

Sub-family Plataleinae 

35. Platalea alba African Spoonbill 70 
LM AM? NBR 

An uncommon wanderer to swamps and rivers with permanent water. 
There might be a breeding colony at the Juron River at Jebel 
Kasangor, where this species was noticed in large numbers in 
February . 

36. Platalea leucorodia Spoonbill 69 
PMW 

The nominate race is a rare Palaearctic visitor, known only from two 
records: Aweil in March (2 birds), Juba in January (2 birds). 

Family PHOENICOPTERIDAE Flamingos 

Phoenicopterus minor Lesser Flamingo 72 

This species might occur in the extreme southeast near Lake 
Turkana. There is no definite record. 

37. Phoenicopterus ruber Greater Flamingo 71 
PMW AM? NBR 

The race roseus , regular in numbers on the White Nile at Khartoum, 
is only an occasional visitor south to Malakal and Kaka. Khartoum 
records include a bird ringed as a nestling in Iran, but African 
breeders might occur, especially near Lake Turkana in the southeast. 



11 



Family ANATIDAE Ducks, Geese 

Ducks and Geese are generally rather uncommon in South Sudan. The Aweil/ 
River Lol area is the only region where large numbers are regular. The 
main wintering range of most Palaearctic species is north of a line 
from Aweil to Malakal and the Sobat River. 

Sub-family Anserinae 

38. Dendrocygna bicolor Fulvous Whistling Duck 95 
R? LM NBR 

Generally less common than the next species with which it often 
associates, favouring the same habitat. A record of 50 - 200 at 
Aweil during late August and early September is noteworthy. 

39. Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Whistling Duck 94 
R LM BR (6) 

Common resident throughout, favouring sandy rivers in wooded grass- 
land. Breeding is reported from the Aweil/River Lol area. 

Sub- family Anatinae 

40 . Alopochen aegyptiacus Egyptian Goose 99 
R? LM NBR 

An uncommon but widely distributed non-breeding visitor in the dry 
season. It probably breeds around Aweil. 

41. Anas acuta Pintail 92 
PMW 

The second most numerous Palaearctic duck wintering in the northern 
part of South Sudan; regularly seen at Malakal, and the Sobat 
River. There are no records from further south. 

42. Anas clypeata Shoveler 80 
PMW 

An uncommon Palaearctic winter visitor occurring in small numbers 
at wetlands throughout, mostly on larger lakes. 

43. Anas crecca Teal 87 
PMW 

The nominate race is an uncommon Palaearctic visitor to smaller 
ponds from January to March. It ranges south to Tonj and Bor, 
always in small numbers. 

44. Anas erythrorhynchus Red-billed Duck 91 
AM? V 

A bird mentioned by Cave & Macdonald from the Kengen River near 
Pibor is the only record. Its status is uncertain. 

45. Anas hottentota Hottentot Teal 90 
AM NBR 

Collected once at Gogrial in 1956 (Nikolaus 1984) . 

46. Anas penelope Wigeon 86 
PMW 

This Palaearctic visitor is common in North Sudan, but winters in 
the South Sudan only on larger open waters. Cave & Macdonald 
included Aweil and the Kengen River in its wintering range. 



12 



17. Anas querquedula Garganey 88 
PMW PMP 

The most common Palaearctic duck. Numerous flocks of 50 - 100 are 
regular around Aweil - Malakal. It occurs in smaller numbers on 
larger waters throughout, both in winter and on passage. A bird 
ringed at Juba (November) was shot in USSR (56°00'N / 71°30'E) 
(October) . 

18. Anas sparsa Black Duck 84 
R BR (1, 2) 

The race leucostigma is resident on wooded mountain streams in the 
Imatong Mountains, and along the Kajiko River south of Yei. 

19. Aythya fuligula Tufted Duck 78 
PMW 

Cave & Macdonald recorded this Palaearctic species south to 
Malakal. There are no recent records. 

>0. Aythya nyroca White-eyed Pochard 75 

PMW 

A rare Palaearctic visitor known only from a single flock at Aweil 
in March (Cave & Macdonald 1955) . 

>1. Netta erythrophthalma Southern Pochard 77 

AM NBR 

The race Jbrunnea is possibly an overlooked non-breeding visitor 
from southern Africa, recently recorded from the Upper Nile swamps, 
frequenting open water. 

)2. Nettapus auritus African Pygmy Goose 97 

R? LM AM? NBR 

Locally common in the rainy season at deep pools with reeds and 
floating vegetation, including up to 30 at Aweil in August - Sept- 
ember. There are records of single birds from Aweil, Meshra-er- 
Req, Pibor, Lake Nibor, Maridi and Yei. 

>3. Plectopterus gambensis Spur-winged Goose 100 

R? LM AM? BR (9) 

The nominate race is fairly common on swampy grasslands throughout. 
Most birds move north in the rainy season, from May. In August - 
September large concentrations with flocks of 50 - 200 at Aweil 
are noteworthy. 

54. Pteronetta hartlaubii Hartlaub's Duck 93 

R BR (7, 8) 

Resident along forest streams in Zandeland, near the Zaire border, 
where it was reported to be locally common (Cave & Macdonald 1955) . 
Present status unknown. 

>5. Sarkidiornis melanotos Knob-billed Goose 98 

AM LM R? NBR 

Locally common, favouring larger swamps. In northern areas it is 
most frequent and numerous from mid-June to late October, possibly 
as a breeding visitor. Daily counts of 100 - 300 at Aweil in Aug- 
ust - September are noteworthy. Three ringed birds from Zimbabwe 
have been recovered in southern Darfur. 



13 



56. Thalassornls leuconotus White-backed Duck 74 
R? LM? NBR 

There is an unlabelled specimen in the Khartoum Museum, probably 
from Gogrial in 1956. Otherwise, there is only one recent sight 
record, from the Upper Nile region. 

The following ducks might occur, but have not been recorded so far : 
Anas capensis Cape Wigeon 89 

Anas strepera Gadwall 85 

Anas undulata Yellow-billed Duck 83 

Ay thy a ferina European Pochard 76 

Family SAGITARIDAE Secretary Bird 

57. Sagittarius serpentarius Secretary Bird 103 
R? LM NBR 

Confined to the extreme southeast, east of Kapoeta, frequenting 
Acacia savanna country. It is likely that breeders from North 
Sudan enter the grasslands of the Sudd during the dry season. 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE Birds of prey (Vultures, Eagles, Hawks etc.) 

Sub- family Aegypiinae 

58. Gypohierax angolensis Palm-nut Vulture 161 
R? LM NBR 

Not uncommon in the forest region along the Zaire border. Records 
are for July - February, suggesting that there are seasonal move- 
ments, perhaps necessitated by a lack of ripe palm nuts. The 
record from Didinga in Snow (1978) is unsubstantiated. 

59 . Gyps africanus White-backed Vulture 107 
R LM BR ( 1 1 , 1 2 ) 

Resident throughout, more common in the south. Breeds commonly in 
tall trees in the open savanna between Kapoeta and Boma. In the 
rainy season records are restricted to larger towns like Juba, Wau 
and Torit, where regular food is available at slaughter houses. 
This species is more numerous than the next in most areas, though 
the position is reversed north of Malakal . 

60. Gyps rueppellii Riippell * s Vulture 106 
R LM BR ( 1 1 , 1 2 ) 

Mainly restricted to the area east of Maridi - Malakal, but also 
occurs in the extreme west at Boro and Kafia Kingi. Large breeding 
colonies are known on precipitous rocks at Amadi and Boma. Most 
records are for October - April; May - September records are all 
from around nesting sites. 

61. Neophron monachus Hooded Vulture 111 
R LM? NBR 

A common resident throughout, except east of Kapoeta where it is 
replaced by the Egyptian Vulture. Numbers are much reduced during 
the rains . 



14 



>2. Neophron percnopterus Egyptian Vulture 110 

R? PMW LM NBR 

Uncommon north of Malakal and in the Ilemi Triangle, replacing the 
hooded Vulture in the more arid regions. 

>3. Torgos tracheliotus Lappet- faced Vulture 108 

R LM BR (1, 11, 12) 

Restricted to the Acacia grasslands of the southeast, ranging west 
to the Nile in the dry seasons. Common near Boma where it breeds 
on tall trees on open plains. Birds from North Sudan wander to 
northern areas in the dry season. 

.4. Trigonoceps occipitalis White-headed Vulture 109 

R LM BR (11, 12) 

Scarce in the forest region along the Zaire border, but otherwise 
fairly common throughout. It breeds in large trees on the Boma 
Plateau. Numbers are much reduced during the rainy season. 

Sub- family Gypaetinae 

Gypaetus barbatus Lammergeyer 162 

No records. The race meridional is is likely to occur in the 
Imatong and Didinga Mountains along the border with Uganda. 

Sub-family Circinae 

»5. Circus aeruginosus Eurasian Marsh Harrier 184 

PMW PMP 

The Palaearctic nominate race is regular around Aweil and the Sudd 
on passage in late August and September. Numbers winter in Dec- 
ember - February but there are few records for October - November 
and March. Always associated with swampy places. 

>6. Circus macrourus Pallid Harrier 183 

PMW 

A Palaearctic visitor to open grassland throughout from December 
to March. Common in the drier parts of the southeast, but rather 
uncommon elsewhere. No obvious evidence of passage. 

>7. Circus pygargus Montagu's Harrier 182 

PMW 

A Palaearctic visitor to open grassland throughout from December 
to March, typically in wetter places than those favoured by the 
Pallid Harrier. 

>8. Circus ranivorus African Marsh Harrier 184 

V? R? NBR 

Status not clear. An immature bird caught and ringed near Juba in 
October supports recent sight records in the Sudd (Nikolaus 1979) . 

Sub- family Polyboroidinae 

>9. Polyboroid.es radiatus Harrier Hawk 185 

R BR (1, 2) 

The race typus is an uncommon resident of better wooded savanna. 
It also occurs in the large tracts of forest along the Zaire border, 
and in the forested parts of the Imatong Mountains. There are no 
records from open grasslands of the Sudd and the Ilemi Triangle. 



15 



Sub- family Circaetinae 

70. Circaetus cinerascans Banded Snake Eagle 157 
R BR (1 - 3) 

A common resident of forests in the Yei, Imatong, Didinga and Boma 
areas. There is no record from the Zande forests along the Zaire 
border. 

71. Circaetus cinereus Brown Snake Eagle 153 
R LM BR (1) 

An uncommon bird of more heavily wooded savanna. There are records 
from Wau, Amadi , Kajo Kaji, Torit and Didinga 

72. Circaetus gallicus Short-toed Snake Eagle 152, 154, 155 

(Including Beaudouin's Snake Eagle C.g. beaudouini and Black-chested 
Snake Eagle C.g. pectoralis) 
PMW R? LM BR (1) 

The nominate Palaearctic race is an uncommon visitor throughout, 
from October to March, recorded from Boma, Aweil, Juba, Torit, 
Kapoeta and the Nile north of Malakal. The few records of the race 
beaudouini are from Aweil, the Sudd and the Lol River in January 
and March; status uncertain, but probably an uncommon seasonal 
visitor to wetter grasslands. The race pectoralis is uncommon in 
the area southeast of Juba, mostly frequenting Acacia grassland; 
all records are for the period October - May. 

73. Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur 159 
R LM NBR 

A widespread and common resident, frequenting all kinds of habitats 
but preferring open wooded savanna. It breeds at the end of the 
rainy season. 

Sub- family Accipitrinae 

74. Accipiter badius Shikra 176 
R LM NBR 

The race sphenurus is a fairly common resident in savanna and 
Acacia woodland throughout. Local northward movements during the 
rains are reported. 

75.^ Accipiter brevipes Levant Sparrowhawk 175 

PMW 

The only record of this Palaearctic migrant is a specimen from Boma 
in December, but recent observations in North Sudan suggest winter- 
ing east of the Nile (Nikolaus 1984) . 

76. Accipiter melanoleucus Great Sparrowhawk 174 
R NBR 
The nominate race is an uncommon resident of heavily wooded savanna, 
There are recent records from Li Rangu, Zande, Gilo, the Upper 
Talanga and the Imatong Mountains. 

77. Accipiter minullus Little Sparrowhawk 170 
R? NBR 

The nominate race is a widespread but uncommon resident. Most 
records are from the Acacia woodlands in the southeast and north of 
Malakal. West of the Nile recorded only from Juba and Amadi. 



16 



78. Accipiter rufiventris Rufous Sparrowhawk 173 
R? V? NBR 

The nominate race was observed once in April 1980 in the Imatong 
Mountains at Gilo (Nikolaus 1982) . A record for the Kapoeta/Boma 
Hills region given by Snow (1978) is an error. 

79. Accipiter tachiro African Goshawk 177 
R? NBR 

Uncommon in forested regions. The race unduliventer occurs at 
Boma Hills, while birds from the Imatong Mountains are assigned to 
spars imfasciatus . 

30. Accipiter tousenelii Rea-chested Goshawk W 162 
R? NBR 

The race canescens is probably a rare resident of the forests along 
the Zaire border. It has been collected by Traylor (1977) (Traylor & 
Archer 1982) . 

31. Aquila nipalensis Steppe Eagle 138 
PMW PMP 

The race orientalis winters regularly in small numbers from late 
December to February. Passage birds are noted east of the Nile from 
late September to December and in April. 

32. Aquila pomarina Lesser Spotted Eagle 
PMP 

The nominate Palaearctic race has been recorded only east of the 
Nile. Precise status is uncertain however, because of former 
confusion with Tawny Eagle and Steppe Eagle. 

33. Aquila rapax Tawny Eagle 139 
LM? AM NBR 

The race belisarius is probably only a non-breeding visitor from 
North Sudan. It is fairly common throughout all savanna regions 
from October to May. 

34. Aquila verreauxi Verreaux's Eagle 136 
R NBR 

This species which favours rocky escarpments, has been reported 
from Imatong at Mt. Kinyeti and Upper Talanga, and from the Uganda 
side of the Didinga Mountains. 

J5. Aquila wahlbergi Wahlberg's Eagle 142 

R? AM? NBR 

A non-breeding visitor from December to April, it was seen in large 
numbers together with Black Kites and Tawny Eagles in late March - 
early April after heavy rains in the Amadi/Yei region. It might 
breed in the Torit/Kapoeta area where it is recorded throughout the 
year. 

Butastur rufipennis Grasshopper Buzzard 158 

R AM BR (3, 5) 

A locally very common breeding visitor in the dry season in any 

habitat except rain forest. Birds leave for the North Sudan from 

the end of May and return in October. Large numbers congregate 

about bush fires. 



17 



87. Buteo augur Augur Buzzard 167 
R NBR 

The nominate race is resident at Gilo/Imatong Mountains; also 
recorded from Boma, Didinga and Kajo Kaji. A bird of the high- 
lands, favouring forest edges and cultivation. 

88. Buteo auguralis Red-necked Buzzard 168 
R? LM BR (2) 

Not uncommon in better wooded savanna south of Wau - Torit, and 
along the Ethiopian border. Some birds might move north during 
the rains. 

89. Buteo buteo Common Buzzard 163 
PMW PMP 

The race vulpinus is a locally common Palaearctic visitor and 
passage migrant mainly east of the Nile. Passage birds are seen 
regularly in Imatong in October and March - early April. 

90. Buteo rufinus Long-legged Buzzard 166 
PMW 

The Palaearctic nominate race is an uncommon winter visitor from 
October to March, favouring dry hills. Rare in the Sudd and 
further south. 

91. Buteo tachardus Mountain Buzzard 165 
R? LM NBR 

The race oreophilus is fairly common in the Imatong, Dongotona and 
Didinga Mountains . There are no records between mid-May and the 
beginning of August. 

92. Hieraaetus pennatus Booted Eagle 145 
PMW PMP 

The nominate race is an uncommon Palaearctic winter visitor. 
Records are from Renk, Maridi, Juba, Torit, Kapoeta and the Kenya/ 
Sudan border from November to March. Passage has been noticed in 
November and March. 

93. Hieraaetus spilogaster African Hawk Eagle 143 
R? LM NBR 

An uncommon dry season visitor favouring well-wooded hilly country. 
Recorded from Boro, Wau, Juba, Torit and Boma. 

94. Kaupifalco monograwmicus Lizard Buzzard 150 
R LM BR (3) 

An uncommon resident in better wooded savanna and forest edges in 
the southern part, rare in the west, north to Wau. 

95. Lophaetus occipitalis Long-crested Hawk Eagle 149 
R LM BR (4) 

Common throughout. A bird of wooded savanna and cultivation. 
Absent from the grasslands of the Sudd. Some move north during 
the rains . 

96. Melierax gabar Gabar Goshawk 178 
R NBR 

A fairly common resident throughout in any kind of woodland except 
in the forests of Imatong and Zandeland. Less common than Dark 
Chanting Goshawk. 



18 



97. Melierax metabates Dark Chanting Goshawk 180 
R LM? BR (4, 5) 

The nominate race is a common resident throughout in any kind of 
woodland except the green forests in Zandeland and Imatong. 

98. Polemaetus bellicosus Martial Eagle 146 
R LM NBR 

An uncommon resident of the savanna along the western, southern and 
eastern borders. 

99. Stephanoaetus coronatus Crowned Eagle 147 
R BR (1) 

A rare resident of the forest region, which has been reported 
breeding on the south side of the Imatong Mountains. Occasionally 
seen at Gilo. An old record from Bahr-el-Ghazal (Butler 1908) is 
unlikely. 

100. Urotriorchis macrourus Long- tailed Hawk 181 
R? LM NBR 

First recorded in January 1982 at Bengengai (J.C. Hillman in litt.) 
A rare forest species; precise status unclear. 

Sub- family Milvinae 

101. Haliaeetus vocifer Fish Eagle 160 
R BR (1, 10 - 12) 

A common resident throughout at any permanent water. 

102. Milvus migrans Black Kite 132 
PMW PMP R LM AM? BR (1, 2, 12) 

The Palaearctic race migrans is a winter visitor and passage 
migrant throughout from October to April. The Yellow-billed Kite 
M.m. parasitus is a breeding visitor and resident. After breeding, 
most birds depart in April and May and return in August. Enormous 
numbers concentrate around bush fires and drying swamps. The race 
aegyptius probably also occurs. Distribution and relative abund- 
ance of the different races are not well documented. 

Sub- family Perninae 

103. Pernis apivorus Honey Buzzard 135 
PMW? PMP? 

Status uncertain but apparently rare; only one definite record, 
from Bengengai in November (J.C. Hillman in litt.). 

104. Chelictinia riocourii Swallow-tailed Kite 131 
LM AM? BR (4) 

Only recorded from the Ilemi Triangle, where it arrives, presumably 
from East Africa, in February for breeding. A bird was seen flying 
south over Gilo in November. Birds from North Sudan occasionally 
come south to Malakal in the dry season. 

105. Elanus caeruleus Black-shouldered Kite 133 
R? LM AM? NBR 

The nominate race is common throughout open savannas in the dry 
season from November to April. Around Juba, birds are recorded 
also from August to October. 



19 



106. Macheiramphus alcinus Bat Hawk 134 
R LM? NBR 

Recorded from Juba (January) , Lol River (March) and Aweil (August) . 
Always associated with a large supply of small bats. 

Family PANDIONIDAE Osprey 

107. Pandion haliaetus Osprey 186 
PMW 

The nominate race is a rare visitor to permanent lakes and the 
Nile. Records are from Malakal (February) , Lake Nibor and Nimule 
(January) , and Maridi (August) . 

Family FALCONIDAE Falcons 

108. Falco alopex Fox Kestrel 125 
R LM NBR 

A locally common resident on mountains and cliffs, most common in 
the southeast. Local movements are indicated by its appearance in 
the non-breeding season far from rocky mountains . 

109. Falco ardosiaceus Grey Kestrel 127 
R? LM NBR 

Frequents open savanna and possibly breeds throughout; locally 
common during the dry. season; undertakes short range movements 
which are not well understood. 

110 Falco biarmicus Lanner Falcon 113 

R LM BR (1, 2) 

Now an uncommon resident, its numbers having decreased in the last 
thirty years. The race abyssinicus is reported in the southeast 
from Bor to Nimule and Lake Turkana. Birds at Malakal, Kaka and 
Aweil (north of 8°N) belong to the race tanypterus . 

111. Falco cher rug Saker Falcon 121 
PMW 

The nominate race is a rare Palaearctic visitor in the east, 
recorded south to Kajo Kaji, but not recently (Cave & Macdonald 
1955) . 

112. Falco chicguera Red-necked Falcon 122 
R? LM BR (1 - 4) 

The race ruficollis is a widespread breeding visitor which is 
locally fairly common; it nests in Borassus and sometimes Hyphaene 
palms. Records are all from January to April and July /August; 
movements require clarification. 

113. Falco cuvieri African Hobby 116 
R LM? NBR 

A rare resident of hilly savanna country in the southern part; 
reported from Boma, Nataporoputh Hills, Lado, Yei , Mt. Baginzi and 
Tonj. 

114. Falco fasciinucha Taita Falcon 114 
R? LM? NBR 

Rare; it has been reported from high lava cliffs northwest of 
Lokitaung on the Kenya/Sudan border (Dowsett 1977) . 



20 



Falco naumanni Lesser Kestrel 

Status uncertain; no definite record for South Sudan but perhaps 
overlooked due to confusion with Common Kesterl. In North Sudan 
it is common on passage and winters locally, the two species often 
being seen together around grass fires. 

115. Falco pelegrino ides Barbary Falcon 112 
PMW 

Probably a rare visitor to the arid extreme southeast, recorded 
from Kapoeta in February 1969 (Nikolaus pers. obs.). 

116. Falco peregrinus Peregrine Falcon 112 
PMW? R? LM NBR 

Reported in open savanna north of Malakal in February and around 
Juba in January, February and October. The status of the various 
races needs to be clarified; minor is probably a rare resident and 
wanderer, recently identified at Aweil in August; the Palaearctic 
calidus may occur. 

117. Falco subbuteo Hobby 115 
PMP 

The nominate Palaearctic race is a rare passage migrant, reported 
from Juba in November and Nimule in April. 

118. Falco tinnunculus Kestrel 123 
PMW PMP? R NBR 

Nearly all records refer to Palaearctic migrants of the nominate 
race, wintering between December and February, and rarely in 
November and March. Common in the dry grass savanna north of 
Malakal and in the southeast, but uncommon in the grasslands of 
the Sudd and River Lol. The resident race rufescens has been 
reported from Boma. 

Falco vespertinus Red- footed Falcon 119 

There are no definite records , but it might be expected on 
passage in western areas since Lynes reported pronounced autumn 
passage at Darfur. 

119. Polihierax semitorquatus Pygmy Falcon 129 
R LM NBR 

Fairly common resident in the dry thorn-bush country of the Ilemi 
Triangle (east of Kapoeta) and west to Juba as an uncommon 
wanderer in the dry season. It is known to take over nests of 
White-headed Buffalo Weaver for breeding and nesting. 

The following species might occur : 

Accipiter ovampensis Ovampo Sparrowhawk 172 

Aquila clanga Greater Spotted Eagle 140 

Hieraaetus dubius Ayres' Hawk Eagle 144 

Melierax poliopterus Pale Chanting Goshawk 179 

Aviceda cuculoides Cuckoo Hawk 130 

Falco concolor Sooty Falcon 117 

Falco eleonorae Eleonora's Falcon 118 

Falco rupiccloides White-eyed Kestrel 124 



21 



Family PHASIANIDAE Quails, Francolins 

120. Cotumix chinensis Blue Quail 213 
R? LM? AM? BR (9) 

A rare bird of wetter short grassland. Recorded only twice from 
Juba and from Yei, where it was breeding at the end of the rains. 
(Cave & Macdonald 1955; Nikolaus pers. obs.). 

121. Cotumix coturnix Quail 211 
R? AM? PMW? NBR 

Uncommon in short grassland; recorded from Aweil (March, September) , 
Lado (January) and Juba (September, October, November) . It is not 
clear to what extent these birds belong to the nominate Palaearctic 
race or, especially in the south, to the African race erlangeri . 

122. Coturnix delegorguei Harlequin Quail 212 
R? LM AM BR (8, 9, 12) 

The nominate race is in some years a very common visitor to Acacia 
short grassland from May to December east of Torit. Occasional 
wanderers are reported from Aweil, Ton j , Kongor and Malakal. 
Numbers and movements are irregular. 

123. Francolinus clappertoni Clapperton's Francolin 202 
R BR (9, 11) 

A fairly common resident of open savanna. Three races occur: 
heuglini northwards from Bor and Tambura, gedgi in the south from 
the Nile at Juba to Didinga, and cavei on the Boma Plateau. 

124. Francolinus icterorhynchus Heuglin's Francolin 201 
R BR (10 - 12) 

The nominate race is a common resident of wooded savanna west of 
the Nile from Kajo Kaji to Tonj and Kafia Kingi. 

125. Francolinus lathami Forest Francolin 189 
R NBR 

The race schubotzi is a rare resident of the gallery forest in 
Zandeland. 

126. Francolinus leucosceptus Yellow-necked Spurfowl 210 
R NBR 

The race infuscatus is a fairly common resident in the extreme 
southeast from Kapoeta to Boma and Lake Turkana, frequenting dry 
grass plains. 

127. Francolinus levaillantoides Smith's (Archer's) Greywing 19€ 
R NBR 

The race archeri is a rare resident of the extreme southeast and 
is only known from specimens from Natoporoputh Hills and Nagishot, 
Didinga Mountains. A species frequenting dry rocky slopes with 
sparse grass. 

128. Francolinus schlegelii Banded Francolin 19 
R NBR 

Uncommon resident in the western Bahr-el-Ghazal west of Wau and 
Gogrial, favouring thickly wooded savanna with clearings. 
Invariably found in association with "Ka" trees Isoberlinia doka. 
Probably breeding September - October. 



22 



129. Francolinus sephaena Crested Francolin 195 
R BR (6, 12) 

The race grantii is a common resident in the southeast from Juba 
to Boma and Didinga, favouring bushy savanna. Recent records 
north to Wau and Malakal may have been young Clapperton's Francolin, 
but needs confirmation 

130. Francolinus squamatus Scaly Francolin 204 
R BR (3, 11) 

The race schuetti is locally common in the extreme south from 
Didinga to Zande, favouring secondary growth and cultivation 
adjoining mountain and gallery forests up to 2400 m. 

131. Ptilopachus petrosus Stone Partridge 214 
R BR (10) 

Common resident south west of Kapoeta - Aweil. Two races occur: 
florentiae in the hilly country of Equatoria; brehmi in the iron- 
stone country of Bahr-el-Ghazal. The exact limits of the two 
races are not clear. 

Family NUMIDIDAE Guineafowls 

132. Guttera edouardi Crested Guineafowl 217 
R BR (3, 11, 12) 

The race sethsmithi is an uncommon resident of the Imatong foot- 
hills and Zande gallery forests. 

133. Numida meleagris Tufted Guineafowl - 216 
R BR (8 - 10) 

The race major is a common resident of the savanna country south 
of Lat. 10 °N and favours Acacia woodland. Often near water and 
in large flocks. North of Malakal it is replaced by the nominate 
race. 

The following species might occur : 

Francolinus streptophorus Ring-necked Francolin 193 

(In Nimule, Imatong, Didinga) . 

Acryllium vulturinum Vulturine Guineafowl 219 

(In the extreme southeast) . 

Family TURNICIDAE Button Quails, Quail Plover 

134. Ortyxelos meiffreni Quail Plover 367 
R? NBR 

Rare: recorded only once, in the dry grassland of the Boma 
plains in February (Nikolaus pers. obs.). 

135. Turnix sylvatica Button Quail 365 
R? LM? AM? NBR 

The race lepurana is very little recorded. It favours overgrown 
cultivation and open grassland. Records are from Wau, the Bahr- 
el-Ghazal, and recently near Renk in February. Always single 
birds or couples . 



23 



Family GRUIDAE Cranes 

136. Antropoides virgo Demoiselle Crane 246 
PMW 

No recent records, but small parties have been reported wintering 
(October to March) as far south as the Sobat River, where they 
frequented dry Acacia grassland and river margins. 

137. Balearica pavonina Crowned Crane 244 
R LM BR (8 - 10) 

The race ceciliae is a common resident throughout except along the 
Zaire border and in the extreme southeast; favours the drier 
margins of rivers and cultivation, often in large flocks. Nests in 
marshy areas of the Sudd and the River Lol. The race gibbericeps 
might occur as a visitor from Uganda along the southern border. 

Family RALLIDAE Rails, Crakes 

138. Crex crex Corncrake 223 
PMW? PMP 

Probably an overlooked and uncommon passage migrant, only once 
recorded (Hartlaub 1881) . Numbers recorded in the North Sudan 
would suggest that it regularly passes through the South. 

139. Crex egregia African Crake 224 
LM? AM? NBR 

Only recorded from the Yei area and Juba from July to September, 
frequenting reeds and moist grassland. 

140. Gallinula angulata Lesser Moorhen 240 
R? LM AM? NBR 

Rare: recorded from Tambura, Kagelu and Kajo Kaji, frequenting 
moist places in woodlands . 

141. Limnocorax flavirostra Black Crake 225 
R BR (7, 11) 

A locally not uncommon resident in marshy grasslands and swamps 
throughout, where it is more frequently seen than other crakes. 
No records from the forest regions in Zande and Imatong, the arid 
southeast, or along the Ethiopian border. 

142. Porphyrio alleni Allen's Gallinule 239 
R? LM BR (7, 8) 

Locally common during the rainy season in reedbeds and large 
marshy places. Very common at Aweil in August. Also reported 
from Geigar (September) , Malakal (June) and Meshra er Req (March) . 
It is not clear whether most birds leave the South during the dry 
season or whether they move to permanent swamps along the big 
rivers . 

Porzana parva Little Crake 229 

No definite records but occurrences in North Sudan and Uganda 
indicate that this secretive bird may be wintering or passing 
through . 

143. Porzana porzana Spotted Crake 221 
PMW? PMP 

Probably a fairly common passage migrant and winter visitor, even 
though records are few. Reported on passage in October and March. 



24 



144. Rallus caerulescens African Water Rail 222 
r? NBR 

Rare: probably a resident at Gilo/I tibol where it has been 
recently observed in March and December in thick secondary growth 
along the Kinyetti River at 2000 m. 

145. Sarothrura af finis Chestnut- tailed Pygmy Crake 230 
R? BR (4) 

The race antonii was collected once (in breeding condition) at 
Kipia. A bird of short montane grassland. 

146. Sarothrura elegans Buff-spotted Pygmy Crake 236 
R? LM NBR 

Recorded from Kagelu, near Yei, in October and from Torit in 
January. A secretive bird of open forest and thickets. 

147. Sarothrura pulchra White-spotted Pygmy Crake 235 
R? NBR 

The race centralis has been recorded only once, at Bengengai in 
Zande (Cave & Macdonald 1955) . A rare secretive bird of swampy 
localities in deep forests; probably a resident. 

The following species might occur : 

Gallinula chloropus Moorhen 239 

Porphyrio porphyrio Purple Gallinule 237 

Porzana pusilla Baillon's Crake 228 

Fulica cristata Red-knobbed Coot 242 

Family OTIDIDAE Bustards 

148. Eupodotis hartlaubii Hartlaub's Bustard 253 
R? LM NBR 

Locally common and probably resident in Acacia short grass savanna 
in the extreme southeast and north of Malakal. 

149. Eupodotis melanogaster Black-bellied Bustard 258 
R? LM NBR 

Fairly common in the dry season throughout the broad-leafed tall 
grass savanna. During the rains most birds move to the North. 

150. Eupodotos ruficrista Buff-crested Bustard 257 
R? LM NBR 

The race gindiana is uncommon to rare, frequenting dry thornbush 
savanna in the extreme southeast. Movements require clarification. 

151. Eupodotis senegalensis Senegal Bustard 256 
R BR (4) 

The race canicollis is a fairly common resident of the dry 
grassland in the extreme southeast. The nominate race might occur 
in the northwest. 

152. Neotis denhami Denham's Bustard 251 
R? LM BR (1, 2) 

The nominate race is the commonest large bustard of open grassland 
and tree savanna in the South Sudan. It is replaced by the Kori 
Bustard in the arid southeast and by the Arabian Bustard in the 



25 



North. However, all three species might be seen together along 
the Ethiopian border. Birds leave during the rains for the North. 
Local movements require clarification, especially in relation to 
those of Kori and Arabian Bustard. 

153. Neotis heuglini Heuglin's Bustard 252 
R? NBR 

Status unknown. According to Snow (1978) recorded from the 
extreme southeast near Lake Turkana. 

154. Otis arabs Arabian Bustard 249 
LM BR (2, 3) 

The race butleri is not uncommon during the dry season when it 
visits open grassland with few trees or bushes. It occurs from 
the Nile east to the Ethiopian border and south to Lake Turkana, 
where it overlaps with the Kori Bustard. Birds move north during 
the rains. 

155. Otis kori Kori Bustard 250 
R? LM NBR 

The race struthiunculus is a common dry season visitor to the arid 
region of the extreme southeast. Commonly seen in open savanna 
on the Boma Plateau. Movements require clarification. 

Family JACANIDAE Jacanas 

156. Actophilornis africanus Jacana 264 
R LM BR (7, 8) 

A very common resident throughout on swamps and open water with 
floating vegetation. Local movements are associated with seasonal 
change of habitat. 

157. Microparra capensis Lesser Jacana 265 
R? LM NBR 

Rare: recorded from Kodok, Aweil, Shambe, Pibor and the south of 
the Zeraf River. Most records are in the rainy season. Like the 
Jacana it is associated with floating vegetation. Recent records 
from Khartoum suggest seasonal movements within the Sudan. 

Family ROSTRATULIDAE Painted Snipe 

158. Rostratula bengalensis Painted Snipe 297 
R? LM AM? NBR 

The nominate race is a very local bird of swamps with mudbanks and 
thick vegetation. Common from Juba south to Kajo Kaji, and once 
recorded from Kodok. Records are all from the period August to 
April. 

Family CHARADRIIDAE Plovers 

159. Charadrius alexandrinus Kentish Plover 269 
PMW PMP 

Common Palaearctic visitor to the White Nile in the North Sudan, 
but inland records further south are rare. One was ringed at 
Aweil in September 1979. 



26 



160. Charadrius asiaticus Caspian Plover 277 
PMW PMP 

A Palaearctic visitor to semi-arid savanna and grassland, wintering 
very commonly in North Sudan south to Malakal; occasionally 
reported from Ton j , Li Rangu and Lado. Expected in the extreme 
southeast on spring and autumn migration. 

161. Charadrius dubius Little Ringed Plover 267 
PMW PMP 

The race curonicus is an uncommon but regular Palaearctic visitor 
from October to April. It favours muddy riverbanks and open grass- 
land near rivers. A young bird ringed in East Germany (August) was 
controlled in the same autumn (November) at Juba. 

162. Charadrius forbesi Forbes 1 Plover 273 
LM AM? NBR 

Uncommon in open ironstone clearings in tall-grass savanna of 
Bahr-el-Ghazal west of the river Jur. Several pairs, observed 
near Wau and Tambura in July and August, showed breeding behaviour. 
Possibly a breeding visitor during the rainy season. 

163. Charadrius hiaticula Ringed Plover 266 
PMW PMP 

The race tundrae is a regular Palaearctic visitor in small numbers 
throughout, frequenting the banks of large rivers. Records at 
Juba from August to November probably refer to passage birds; 
records from Wau, Lake No, Sobat, Malakal and Renk are from winter 
and spring up to May. 

Charadrius leschenaultii Great Sandplover 275 

A Palaearctic species which might occur along the Nile. 

164. Charadrius mongolus Mongolian Sandplover 274 
PMW 

The race atrifrons is a rare Palaearctic visitor, recorded once in 
January 1978 near Juba (Nikolaus pers. obs.); eight birds stayed 
during day-time at a muddy swamp and flew to dry grassland at night. 

165. Charadrius pecuarius Kittlitz's Sandplover 271 
PMW? LM AM? NBR 

Uncommon to rare; the nominate race is recorded in small numbers 
on short grassland along the Nile at Juba from August to October 
and in March. 

166. Charadrius tricollaris Three-banded Plover 272 
LM NBR 

The nominate race is an uncommon to rare visitor to rivers in the 
southeast; reported only in November along the Nile near Juba and 
in December at a sandy river near the Kenya border. 

167. Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover 279 
PMW PMP 

A rare Palaearctic visitor, reported from a muddy riverbank near 
Juba in October and January (Nikolaus pers . obs . ) . 

168. Vanellus albiceps White-headed Plover 290 
R? NBR 

Rare; recorded only from sandy rivers in Bahr-el-Ghazal (Ibba, 
Numatina, Sue, Busseri) . 



27 



169. Vanellus corona tus Crowned Lapwing 281 
R LM? NBR 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident in the extreme south- 
east where it frequents dry open thorn bush country; usually in 
small numbers. 

170. Vanellus crassirostris Long-toed Lapwing 293 
R LM? NBR 

The nominate race is common, but confined to the larger permanent 
waters with floating vegetation, such as the Sobat, Bahr-el-Ghazal 
and the Nile north to Renk. 

171. Vanellus leucurus White-tailed Plover 185 
PMW 

A rather uncommon Palaearctic visitor from October to March, 
frequenting swampy grassland. So far recorded only from Aweil 
but should occur along the Nile south to Malakal. 

172. Vanellus senegallus Wattled Plover 291 
R LM? BR (3) 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident throughout, prefer- 
ring damp localities in savanna and sometimes open grassland. 
There is indication of some northward migration in the rainy 
season. 

173. Vanellus spinosus Spur-winged Plover 286 
PMW? R? LM BR (2, 3) 

A common resident throughout along open waters and swamps. In the 
non-breeding season it occurs usually in small parties, and shows 
local movements . 

174. Vanellus tectus Black-headed Plover 292 
R LM? BR (3, 4, 6, 7) 

The nominate race is a common resident of less arid grassland and 
Acacia savanna in southeastern and northern areas. Seasonal move- 
ments probably occur. 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE Sandpipers, Snipes 

WADERS 

Palaearctic waders are more or less dependent on marshy grassland or 
mudbanks, which are widespread at the time of autumn migration and up 
to November/December. Later in winter and during spring migration, 
such habitat has largely dried up, so that wader numbers in autumn are 
much greater than in spring. 

Sub-family Tringinae 

175. Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper 312 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic visitor throughout to any type of wetland 
from July to April. Passage birds are noticed from July to 
November and again in March and April. Birds ringed in South 
Africa and Zimbabwe in December were recovered respectively near 
Torit in April and at Yambio in March 



28 



176. Tringa erythropus Spotted Redshank 316 
PMW PMP 

An uncommon to rare Palaearctic winter visitor, mainly from 
December to March, to the Nile and large rivers in northern 
Bahr-el-Ghazal. Common at Aweil from late August. 

177. Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper 314 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic visitor and passage migrant to swampy grass- 
land throughout from August to April. Most birds move further 
south between November and January because of habitat deterioration 
in the dry season. A bird ringed near Juba in October was 
recovered in the U.S. S.R. (66°30'N, 70°38»E) in June. 

178. Tringa nebularia Greenshank 318 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic visitor in small numbers throughout to sandy 
rivers and swampy waters, from August to the beginning of May. 

179. Tringa ochropus Green Sandpiper 313 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic passage migrant and uncommon winter visitor, 
mainly to pools in savanna and forest streams, but more widespread 
on passage. Recorded from August to April with passage from 
August to October and March to April. 

180. Tringa stagnatilis Marsh Sandpiper 317 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic visitor to marshy grassland along the Nile 
and sandy rivers in Bahr-el-Ghazal from August to April; uncommon 
south of Wau and Bor. 

181. Tringa totanus Redshank 315 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic visitor to marshy grassland along the Nile 
and sandy rivers in Bahr-el Ghazal from August to April; uncommon 
south of Wau and Bor. 

182. Xenus cinereus Terek Sandpiper 311 
PMP 

Recorded only once from the Nile near Juba in November 1978 on 
muddy grassland (Nikolaus pers. obs.). 

Sub-family Scolopacinae 

183. Gallinago gallinago Common Snipe 298 
PMW PMP 

The nominate race is a common Palaearctic visitor to marshy grass- 
lands throughout. Most common during autumn passage from late 
August to November; rare after February. Two birds ringed at Juba 
in October were controlled at the same site in November and 
January of the same winter. 

184. Gallinago media Great Snipe 299 
PMP 

Recorded from Wau, Juba and Lado, between September and November 
and in April, when regularly seen on grassy marshes near larger 
rivers. A bird ringed near Juba in November was recovered in Kirov 
region U.S. S.R (58°15»N, 51° E) in August. 

29 



185. Gallinago nigripennis African Snipe 300 
R? AM? NBR 

The race aequatorialis is an uncommon highland species, recorded 
from Gilo in the Imatong Mountains (April, June and October) , where 
it might breed. A bird at Lado was probably a wanderer. 

186. Lymnocryptes minimus Jack Snipe 302 
A sporadic winter visitor to swampy grassland from October to 
January. Common around Juba in November-December 1978, but absent 
the following year. 

Sub- family Caliditrinae 

187. Calidris alba Sanderling 308 
PMP 

A rare Palaearctic passage migrant, recorded once from Juba in 
September 1975 at a flooded gravel pit (Nikolaus pers. obs.). 

188. Calidris alpina Dunlin 304 
PMW 

A rare winter visitor along the Nile south to Bor which is the 
southern limit of its wintering range. 

189. Calidris ferruginea Curlew Sandpiper 303 
PMW PMP 

A regular Palaearctic passage migrant and uncommon winter visitor, 
recorded mainly from large muddy river banks around Juba and at 
Aweil rice scheme from August to January. 

190. Calidris minuta Little Stint 305 
PMW PMP 

A regular Palaearctic passage migrant and winter visitor from 
August to March, frequenting open mudflats and small pools mainly 
along and east of the Nile where flocks of up to 100 birds occur 
together. Small numbers occur on spring passage until May. Rare 
in Bahr-el-Ghazal. A bird ringed at Juba in November was control- 
led at Lake Magadi (Kenya) in January. 

191. Calidris temminckii Temminck's Stint 306 
PMW 

An uncommon Palaearctic winter visitor to marshy grassland; 
recorded from October to January in small numbers along the Nile 
south of Bor. 

192. Limicola falcinellus Broad-billed Sandpiper 307B 
PMP 

A rare Palaearctic visitor; recorded once on wet mud at Aweil rice 
scheme in August 1978 (Nikolaus 1979) . 

193. Limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit 319 
PMW 

An uncommon visitor in small numbers; recorded on wet grassland 
along the Nile and Sobat Rivers and at Aweil from August to March 
(mainly November to February) . 

194. Philomachus pugnax Ruff 309] 
PMW PMP 

Occurs in very large numbers on open marshy grassland along the 
Nile and around Aweil/River Lol from August to April. From January, 

30 



onwards numbers decrease greatly due to reduction of suitable 
habitat in the dry season. Birds ringed in Aweil in August/ 
September were recovered in Algeria in April and U.S.S.R. 
(62° N, 117°E) in May. 

Sub- family Arenariinae 

195. Arenaria interpres Turnstone 310 
PMP 

The nominate race is a rare Palaearctic passage migrant recorded 
at Juba in September and October. 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE Stilts, Avocets 

196. Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt 296 
PMW AM? LM? NBR 

The nominate race is a common visitor to swamps and rivers through- 
out from September to April, presumably of Palaearctic origin. 
Some birds remain in the South Sudan from May to August. 
No breeding records can be traced. 

197. Recurvirostra avosetta Avocet 295 
PMW AM? NBR 

A rare Palaearctic winter visitor. Recorded twice along the Nile 
near Juba in November; also from Baro River, Bahr-el-Ghazal and 
Kodok. 

Family BURHINIDAE Thicknees 

198. Burhinus capensis Spotted Thicknee 262 
R LM? BR (5 - 7) 

The race maculosus is a fairly common resident of dry savanna often 
noticed at night or in the late evening, but resting under cover 
during daytime. 

Burhinus oedicnemus Stone Curlew 260 

Status unknown: the nominate race should occur as is known from 
northern Uganda, northern Kenya and Gambela, Ethiopia. 

199. Burhinus senegalensis Senegal Thicknee 261 
R LM? BR (3, 4) 

The race inornatus is a common resident throughout, except west of 
Wau, where it is rare. Always associated with water; often seen 
in small groups resting along riverbanks during daytime, and 

7BI becoming active mainly at night. 

i 1 Family GLAREOLIDAE Coursers , Egyptian Plover , Pratincoles 

,„ Sub-family Cursoriinae 

200. Cursorius cursor Cream-coloured Courser 325 
R? LM? NBR 

i The race littoralis is uncommon in open arid Acacia grassland in 
the extreme southeast near Lake Turkana. 

309 201. Cursorius temminckii Temminck's Courser 
R LM? NBR 

The nominate race is uncommon; normally found in small flocks in 



iary- 



31 



semi-arid or stony scrub country and in short grassland in the area 
southeast of Juba - Boma Hills. Records are from October, February 
and March. 

202. Pluvianus aegyptius Egyptian Plover 334 
R? LM BR (1 - 4) 

A common breeding visitor in the dry season to rivers with sand- 
banks. No records for the southeast, the Sudd or the southwestern 
border region. Most birds move to the North during the rainy 
season. Birds ringed in Gambela, Ethiopia, in November and April 
were recovered in North Sudan at Kosti (August) and Khartoum 
(September) . 

203. Rhinoptilus chalcopterus Violet-tipped Courser 329 
LM AM? BR (1-3) 

An uncommon and secretive bird throughout, normally in small flocks 
and breeding in open savanna during the dry season from September 
to May. No information about movements during the rainy season. 

204. Rhinoptilus cinctus Heuglin's Courser 328 
LM? V? NBR 

Status unknown; the nominate race was recorded prior to 1865 
between Juba and Lake Turkana. There is only one recent record 
from Kapoeta in December 1960 (P.J. Dare in litt.). 

Sub-family Glareolinae 

205. Glareola nordmanni Black -winged Pratincole 331 
PMW PMP 

Probably a regular but little recorded Palaearctic visitor, easily 
confused with the Common Pratincole G. pratincola . Passage records 
are from Juba in March and Kajo Kaji in April. There would appear 
to be a wintering population on the Sudan/Ethiopian border. Up to 
5000 were recorded during December/January 1972-73 roosting on 
sandbanks of the Baro River together with Common Pratincoles. 

206. Glareola nuchalis White-collared Pratincole 333 
LM? V? NBR 

In the past the nominate race was recorded twice along the Nile, 
at Nimule and Lado in October, but there are no recent records. 

207. Glareola pratincola Common Pratincole 330 
PMW R? LM AM? NBR 

Regularly recorded between September and March on or near swampy 
grassland. Large flocks of up to 5000 birds were seen, together 
with Black-winged Pratincole G. nordmanni roosting on sandbanks 
of the Baro River (Sudan/Ethiopian border) in December and January. 
The nominate race is a Palaearctic winter visitor recorded south 
to Malek, while the African race limbata is a common non-breeding 
visitor from the North Sudan. Birds seen at Juba might be of the 
race fuelleborni which occurs from Lake Turkana west to Uganda. 
The status of the different races needs clarification. 



32 



Family LARIDAE Gulls, Terns 

Sub-family Larinae 

Larus cirrocephalus Grey-headed Gull 142 

No definite record for South Sudan. Since it occurs regularly in 
autumn south of Khartoum, it is to be expected at Lake No and along 
the White Nile- 

208. Larus fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull 340 
PMW 

The nominate race is a rare Palaearctic visitor to the Nile; 
recorded from Malakal and Juba in December. 

209. Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull 345 
PMW PMP 

Single immature birds are uncommon Palaearctic visitors; have been 
recorded wintering on lakes and small rivers at Malakal, Aweil, 
Lake Nibor, Terakeka and Maridi. At Lake No, thirty birds includ- 
ing a few adults stayed around a fishing camp in February. The 
great increase in numbers visiting Kenya and North Sudan has not 
so far been recorded in the South Sudan. 

Sub- family Sterninae 

210. Chlidonias hybridus Whiskered Tern 362 
PMW PMP 

The nominate race is an uncommon Palaearctic visitor in small 
numbers to lakes and swamps in the Sudd; recorded from Malakal and 
Lake Nibor from December to February. 

211. Chlidonias leucopterus White-winged Black Tern 361 
PMW PMP 

The most common tern, occurring on passage from late August to 
November at any swamp and open water, especially along the Nile. 
Winters in small numbers at the swamps and lakes of the Sudd, and 
commonly until March on the Sobat/Baro River and on the Nile north 
of Malakal. 

Chlidonias niger Black Tern 360 

There are no definite records. 

212. Gelochelidon nilotica Gull-billed Tern 349 
PMW PMP 

The nominate race is a fairly common Palaeartic visitor in small 
numbers to rivers and swamps throughout. Passage is noticed along 
the Nile in September/October and in March. 

213. Sterna caspia Caspian Tern 350 
PMW 

A few records of single birds from the Nile around Malakal and on 
the Sobat/Baro River during January/February. This is the southern 
limit of the wintering range on the Nile. 

Family RHYNCHOPIDAE Skimmers 

14. Rhynchops flavirostris Skimmer 364 

LM AM? NBR 

Recorded in small numbers from Sobat River and the Nile in the dry 



33 



season (January /February) . Moves away during the rainy season, 
probably to North Sudan to breed. 

Family PTEROCLIDAE Sandgrouse 

215. Pterocles exustus Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse 369 
R? LM NBR 

Two races occur: the nominate race from the North Sudan visits the 
dry extreme north around Renk in the dry season; The race olivas- 
cens is probably resident in the extreme southeast and regularly 
visits waterholes. 

216. Pterocles lichtensteinii Lichtenstein's Sandgrouse 373 
R? LM? NBR 

The race sukensis is occasionally reported from the extreme south- 
east in dry, stony open thornbush country. 

217. Pterocles quadricinctus Four-banded Sandgrouse 375 
R? LM BR (2, 3) 

The most common Sandgrouse in the South Sudan; found in open 
savanna throughout except in the arid extreme southeast where it 
is replaced by other species. Most birds leave, probably moving 
to the North Sudan, during the rainy season. 

Family COLUMBIDAE Pigeons, doves 

Sub-family Columbinae 

218. Aplopelia larvata Lemon Dove 398 
R BR (4, 11) 

The nominate race is a common resident of the mountain forests and 
forest edges of Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga. The smaller 
Ethiopian race bronzina is reported from the forest of Boma Hills. 

219. Columba albinucha White-naped Pigeon 381 
R? LM? NBR 
Probably rare: recorded only from Bengengai forest in 1981/82 

(Hillman in litt.) . 

220. Columba arguatrix Olive Pigeon 380 
R LM? BR (1, 11, 12) 
The nominate race is a common resident in the forests of the 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mountains. Most numerous during 
the dry season after breeding. 

221. Columba delegorguei Bronze-naped Pigeon 383 
R? NBR 

The race sharpii is recorded from the forest regions of the 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mountains where it is probably 
resident. Less common than the Olive Pigeon, which prefers the 
higher altitudes. 

222. Columba guinea Speckled Pigeon 37S 
R BR (1 - 5) 

The nominate race is a common resident throughout in savanna and 
towns except in the Sudd region, the green forests of the south, 
and the arid extreme southeast. Breeds in Borassus palms, build- 
ings and rocks. 



34 



223. Columba unicincta Afep Pigeon 382 
R? - NBR 

Probably rare: known only from gallery forests on the Aloma Plat- 
eau south of Yei (Macdonald & Cave 1948) . 

224. Oena capensis Namaqua Dove 393 
R LM NBR 

Very common from December to March throughout except in forests; 
often on roads and cultivation. Most birds move north before the 
rains, possibly for breeding, but in Gilo the species was recorded 
in August. Seasonal movements are not well understood. 

225. Streptopelia capicola Ring-necked Dove 388 
R? LM? NBR 

The race tropica occurs in the arid region southeast of Boma/Torit, 
where its distribution overlaps with that of the Vinaceous Dove. 

226. Streptopelia decipiens Mourning Dove 387 
R BR (1 - 4, 6 - 10) 

The nominate race occurs from Malakal northwards and along the 
Ethiopian border; the race logonensis is present in the south and 
west. Fairly common in savanna and cultivation, always near water. 

227. Streptopelia lugens Dusky Turtle Dove 385 
R LM? BR (8, 9) 

The nominate race is common in the Imatong and Didinga Mountains 
and Boma Hills around forest edges and cultivation at high altit- 
udes. Commonest from October to December and rare during June/ July. 

228. Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eyed Dove 386 
R BR (9 - 11) 

Common in the better wooded savanna and gallery forests of Boma 
and southern Equatoria, and west of Wau north to Boro River. 
Absent from the primary forest on Imatong. 

229. Streptopelia senegalensis Laughing Dove 392 
R LM ) BR (1 - 4, 10 - 12) 

The nominate race is common throughout in open savanna, cultivation 
and villages, often concentrating in large numbers on harvested 
fields . 

230. Streptopelia turtur Turtle Dove 384 
PMW 

The wintering range reaches South Sudan in the dry savanna at 
Malakal and the Boro River. Wintering birds occur regularly 
in large numbers around Renk when they fly to the Nile for drinking. 
These are mostly of the nominate race but arenicola could occur. 

231. Strepticola vinacea Vinaceous Dove 390 
R LM BR (1, 3, 4, 12) 

The most common ring- necked Dove in savanna throughout South Sudan, 
except in the arid southeast where it is replaced by the Ring- 
75 necked Dove. 

32. Turtur abyssinicus Black -billed Wood Dove 396 

R LM? BR (1, 12) 

Very common throughout in any savanna and cultivation except in 
forest and gallery forest, where it is replaced by the Blue-spotted 
Wood Dove . 



35 



h 



233. Turtur afer Blue-spotted Wood Dove 395 
R NBR 

A fairly common resident of better wooded savanna and gallery 
forest in the southwest; reported from Boma, Imatong, Juba, Zande, 
Ton j , Wau and Boro River. 

234. Turtur chalcospilos Emerald-spotted Wood Dove 397 
R NBR 

Recorded only in the southeast, from Didinga and south of Boma, 
where it replaces the Black-billed Wood Dove. 

235. Turtur tympanistria Tambourine Dove 394 
R BR (1 - 4, 8) 

A common resident in heavily wooded savanna and forest at Didinga, 
Dongotona, Imatong, Aloma Plateau, Aza Forest and Zande. 

Sub- family Treroninae 

236. Treron australis Green Pigeon 401 
R? BR (11) 

The race uluensis is fairly common in the gallery forests along the 
Uganda and Zaire border west of the Nile, feeding on fig trees. 
Birds around Imatong are assigned to the race gibberifrons. Two 
records given by Snow (1978) for the extreme southeast need 
confirmation . 

237. Treron waalia Bruce 's Green Pigeon 400 
R? LM NBR 

Locally common in savanna with large fig trees , but absent along 
the Zaire border and the open grass plains of the Sudd. There are 
no records for July and August and only a few during September to 
December. 

Family PSITTACIDAE Parrots, lovebirds 

238. Agapornis pullaria Red-headed Lovebird 452 
R NBR 

Uncommon in better wooded savanna in the southwest; recorded from 
Kajo Kaji, Yei , Maridi, Bengengai, from Tambura north to Wau and 
Ton j , and at the Boro River. The racial status is unclear, as both 
the nominate race and ugandae could occur. 

239. Poicephalus crassus Niam Niam Parrot 446 
R NBR 

Rare in the extreme southwest where recorded only a few times from 
forested localities around Yambio. 

240. Poicephalus meyeri Brown Parrot 449 
R NBR 

Fairly common in better wooded savanna southwest of Gogrial - Amadi 
- Kapoeta, except for a small area between Rumbek and Bengengai 
which seperates its distribution into two areas. All birds have 
been assumed to be of the nominate race, but populations along the I 
southern border could belong to the race saturatus . 

241. Psittacula krameri Rose-ringed Parrakeet 45C 
R BR (8) 

The nominate race is fairly common but rather local in all types of 



36 



I 



savanna from the Kenya border to Juba, Lado and Maridi, in the 
region Tonj - Wau - Boro River, and north to the Bahr-el Arab. 
There are no records from the southwest, but it might be overlooked. 

Family MUSOPHAGIDAE Turacos 

242. Corythaeola cristata Great Blue Turaco 437 
R NBR 

Fairly common resident in the foothill forests of Imatong up to 
1800m and in the gallery forests of Zande. Sometimes in parties 
of up to twenty birds. 

243. Corythaixoides leucogaster White-bellied Go-away Bird 440 
R LM NBR 

Fairly common in Acacia savanna in the southeast. Some birds move 
as far west as Maridi and Mvolo in the dry season from January to 
March. There is an isolated record from Acacia woodland at Ayod 
south of Malakal in February (G. Nikolaus pers. obs.). 

244. Crinifer zonurus Eastern Grey Plantain Eater 438. 
R BR (12) 

Common throughout savanna southwest of Kapoeta - Lado - Rumbek - 
Aweil - Kafia Kingi. 

:5. Musophaga rossae Ross 1 Turaco 436 

R NBR 

Rare: there are only a few records from Didinga Mountains, Aloma 
Plateau and Zande, where it occurs in larger gallery and "bowl" 
forests; not recorded from Imatong. 

6. Tauraco leucolophus White-crested Turaco 433 

R NBR 

Fairly common and probably resident southwest of Didinga - Lado - 
Tonj - Nyamyell in better wooded savanna, gallery forests and 
. forest edges at low altitude, 

247. Tauraco leucotis White-cheeked Turaco 425 
R NBR 

The nominate race is a common resident in better wooded savanna on 
Boma Hills. 

248. Tauraco schuetti Black-billed Turaco 430 
R NBR 

The race emini is quite common in the higher forests of the Imatong 
and Dongetona Mountains, and uncommon in the forests of Mt. Lotuke, 
Didinga. The race finschi is rather uncommon in the Zande forests 
and on the Aloma Plateau. 

Family CUCULIDAE Cuckoos, Coucals 

Sub- family Cuculinae 

249. Chrysococcyx caprius Didric Cuckoo 417 
R LM BR (10) 

Fairly common in dry savanna throughout. Mainly resident, although 
some move north during the rainy season. Parasitic mainly on 
weavers, bishops and sparrows. 



37 



250. Chrysococcyx cupreus Emerald Cuckoo 416 
R LM BR (4 - 6) 

The nominate race is common, calling from March to October, in the 
forest regions of Imatong, Aloma Plateau, Aza Forest and Zande. 
Records from Imatong in December and January suggest that it is 
mainly resident. Wanderers have been reported from Wau (July) and 
Meshra er Req (May) , but these records need confirmation. 
Parasitic on flycatchers, shrikes, bulbuls, warblers and sunbirds. 

251. Chrysococcyx flavigularis Yellow-throated Green Cuckoo 419 
R? LM? NBR 

A rare forest species known only from a sight record from Bengengai 
in March 1977 (Tray lor & Archer 1982) . 

252. Chrysococcyx klaas Klaas ' Cuckoo 418 
R LM? BR (1, 10 - 12) 

Uncommon in savanna during the dry season; reported from Gogrial, 
Ayod, Maridi, Boma and from Juba to Kapoeta. In Imatong it is a 
fairly common resident in secondary growth and forest edges. Birds 
ringed in Gilo in May 1978 and July 1979 were controlled there in 
December 1980 and January 1980 respectively. Reported hosts are 
flycatchers, warblers, sunbirds and weavers. 

253. Clamator glandarius Great Spotted Cuckoo 413 
PMW? LM R? NBR 

Uncommon in savanna; recorded all months except July, October and 
December, at Boma, Juba, Torit, Kajo Kaji, Opari , Li Rangu, Rumbek, 
Ton j , Wau, Aweil, Gogrial and Rerik. Status and movements are not 
clear because both African and Palaearctic birds could occur. 
Parasitic mainly on Pied Crow, but also on Cape Rook and Piapiac. 

254. Clamator jacobinus Black and White Cuckoo 415 
PMW? AM? LM? BR (8, 10) 

The race pica is a fairly common visitor to savanna from April to 
October, mainly southwest of Kapoeta-Bor-Aweil. Breeding is 
reported from Torit (breeding condition in October) and Wau 
(August) . There is one December record from the Kenya border in 
dry Acacia savanna. The South African race serratus should occur, 
but the racial staus needs clarification. Parasitic on babblers. 

255. Clamator levaillantii Levaillant's Cuckoo 414 
LM? AM? NBR 
An uncommon visitor in March/April and July /September to the better 
wooded savanna of the southwest where recorded north to Wau. 
A lack of records for May and June suggests movement to the north 
to breed. Parasitic on babblers. 

256. Cuculus canorus Eurasian Cuckoo 404 
PMP 

Recorded only on autumn passage, when small numbers occur regularly 
in savanna between late August to early November with a peak in 
September. The races canorus and telephonus have occurred. 

257. Cuculus clamosus Black Cuckoo 407 
R? LM? AM? NBR 

Status unknown. The nominate race was once collected from the 
Laboni Forest in Imatong in March 1936 (specimen in Khartoum Museunj 
Parasitic on bulbuls, robin chats and small shrikes. 



38 



. Cuculus gularis African Cuckoo 404 

AM? LM? R? NBR 

Uncommon in savanna; reported at Bahr-el Zeraf (June) , Yambio (Dec- 
ember) , Aloma Plateau (March) , Lado (April) and Torit (October - 
November). Hosts are drongos , scrub robins and glossy starlings. 

. Cuculus solitarius Red-chested Cuckoo 406 

R LM AM? BR (3 - 6) 

A common resident of savanna and forests mainly south of 5 N, but 
also recorded from Boro River in April. It is stimulated to call 
by rain, otherwise unobtrusive. Robin chats are the main hosts. 

. Pachy coccyx audeberti Thick-billed Cuckoo 412 

AM? R? NBR 

The race validus is rare, recorded only from gallery forests in 
Zande; probably resident. 

Sub-family Phoenicophaeinae 

261. Ceuthmochares aereus Yellowbill 424 

R NBR 

The nominate race is a little recorded resident of dense thickets 
and riverine forest west of the Nile in the extreme south. 

Sub- family Centropinae 

62. Centropus grillii Black Coucal 420 
R? NBR 

An uncommon bird of swamps and marshes, reported from Aweil, Tonj , 
Tambura, Lado, Juba, north of Torit and Boma. Birds in breeding 
plumage suggest that nesting occurs during the late rainy season 
(August/September) . 

63. Centropus monachus Blue-headed Coucal 421 
R BR (6, 8) 

The race fischeri occurs commonly throughout and intergrades with 
the nominate race along the Ethiopian border. It inhabits dense 
parts of secondary growth and forest clearings up to 3000 m in 
Imatong, as well as papyrus and grass swamps with dense thickets 
near rivers and lakes in the Sudd. Birds with blue rather than 
violet glossed heads restricted to papyrus and reeds in the Sudd 
have been described as 'C. heuglini' and might prove to be a valid 
species. 

64. Centropus senegalensis Senegal Coucal 422 
R BR (3, 10) 

The nominate race is an uncommon resident but widely distributed 
throughout, frequenting thickets near swamps and also dry thick 
bushland. Less common than the Blue-headed Coucal. 

65. Centropus superciliosus White-browed Coucal 423 
R NBR 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident in Acacia savanna 
with scrubby thickets. It occurs mainly in the southeast and 
north of Renk. 



39 



Family TYTONIDAE Barn Owls 

266. Tyto alba Barn Owl 528 
R BR (1, 2) 

The race affinus is uncommon throughout, frequenting towns, and 
rocks and hollow trees in savanna. Reported from Lake No, Aweil, 
Yei, Juba, Torit and Jebel Kasangor. 

Family STRIGIDAE Owls 

267. Asio capensis African Marsh Owl 532 
R? LM? AM? NBR 

The nominate race occurs in swamps in the Sudd region. Butler 
reported very common in papyrus along the Nile and Bahr-el-Ghazal 
in January and February. Otherwise records are few. Status and 
movements unclear. 

268. Bubo africanus Spotted Eagle Owl 543 
R BR (1, 2) 

The race cinarascens is common throughout in savanna and towns, 
where hills and large trees are available. Often noted at night 
sitting on roads. 

269. Bubo lacteus Verreaux's Eagle Owl 544 
R BR (1) 

Widely distributed; locally common at forest edges of Imatong and 
Didinga up to 2500m, and in gallery forest at Aloma Plateau and 
Zande. A few occur along the larger rivers, the White Nile, Sobat, 
Bahr-el-Ghazal and Jur where large trees are available. 

270. Ciccaba woodfordii African Wood Owl 533 
R BR (12) 

Two races occur: uwbrina on the Boma Plateau, and bohndorffi along 
the southern border from the Didinga Mountains to Zande . Probably 
not uncommon in forest and gallery forest at low altitude. 

271. Glaucidium perlatum Pearl-spotted Owlet 538 
R NBR 

There are a few records of the race licua from Acacia woodland, in 
The southeast and north of Malakal and Wau. 

272. Otus leucotis White-faced Scops Owl 536 
R NBR 

The nominate race is widespread, but little recorded, in Acacia 
savanna and open woodland near Boro River, Bahr-el-Zeraf , Lado and 
the Ilemi Triangle. 

273. Otus scops Scops Owl 534 
PMW 

Winters commonly in North Sudan but recorded at Tonj in January and 
at Juba and Malakal in March. Habitat ranges from open savanna anc 
gallery forest to tall reeds. In addition to the nominate race 
pulchellus could occur. 

274 Otus senegalensis African Scops Owl 53'; 

R? NBR 

The nominate race is common throughout in savanna southwest of 
Kapoeta - Lado - Tonj - Bahr el Arab, and on the Boma Plateau. It 
call is most frequently heard in the dry season. 

40 



275. Scotopelia peli Pel's Fishing Owl 546 

R NBR 

Rare: Snow (1978) mentions one record from the Akobo River, and it 
has recently been photographed at Mbili on the Jur River 
(J.S. Fairclough in litt.) . 

The following species might occur, but have not been recorded so far : 

Asio flammeus Short-eared Owl 531 

(open grassland and swamps of the Sudd) 

Asio otus Long-eared Owl 530 

(Ethiopian border) 

Glaucidium tephronotus Red-chested Owlet 539 
(Imatong and Zande) 

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE Nightjars 

. Caprimulgus aegypticus Egyptian Nightjar 561 

PMW 

The nominate race is an uncommon winter visitor from November to 
March to arid localities north of Malakal; recorded from Kaka and 
near Lake No. 

. Caprimulgus clarus Slender- tailed Nightjar 565 

R BR (3 - 5) 

"A common resident east of the Nile in open wet grassland and dry 
short grassland with scattered bushes. Overlaps along the Nile 
with Long- tailed Nightjar. 

. Caprimulgus climacurus Long-tailed Nightjar 565 

R? LM BR (2 - 4) 

Two races breed: A common savanna species which hunts at night 
over swamps and marshes, nigricans mainly north of 7°N and sclateri 
south of 7°N but mainly west of the Nile. The nominate race which 
breeds in North Sudan, is probably only a dry season visitor. All 
three races have been reported from Lado. Both local races move 
north within their range to breed. Overlaps in the east with 
Slender- tailed Nightjar. 

. Caprimulgus donaldsoni Donaldson-Smith's Nightjar 552 

LM NBR 

Seasonally common in dry Acacia scrub in the Ilemi Triangle in 
February and June; absent in November and December. Status and 
movements little known. 

280. Caprimulgus europaeus European Nightjar 547 

PMP? 

Collected by Emin Pasha at Lado (Hartlaub 1881; date and race 
unrecorded) No other records . 

81. Caprimulgus fraenatus Dusky Nightjar 548 

R? LM? NBR 

Uncommon; recorded only from the extreme southeast, frequenting 
thorn scrub in rocky country. 



41 



282. Caprimulgus inornatus Plain Nightjar 556 
AM LM? R? NBR 

An intra-African migrant, which breeds in dry savanna in North 
Sudan between April and October. Passage noted regularly in March/ 
April and October /November. Status in the extreme south from Zande 
to Boma is unclear; this may be the northern limit of the non-breed- 
ing range, but there is also probably a resident population in 
northern Uganda and northern Kenya. 

283. Caprimulgus natalensis White-tailed Nightjar 557 
R NBR 

The race chadensis is very locally distributed on wet grassland, 
recorded only from Lake No to Malakal , along the Sobat River to 
the Ethiopian border, and along the southern border from Maridi 
to Kajo Kaji. The lack of records from the Sudd, where its typical 
habitat is abundant, is unexpected. 

Caprimulgus nubicus Nubian Nightjar 553 

This species must be rejected from the South Sudan list. The two 
specimens from Juba in January 1979 (Nikolaus 1979) were re-ident- 
ified as juvenile Slender-tailed Nightjars. 

284. Caprimulgus pectoralis Fiery-necked Nightjar 551 
R? NBR 

The race nigriscapularis frequents better wooded savanna and 
gallery forest along the southern border from Imatong to Zande , 
where it is fairly common, and possibly also in Boma. All records 
to date are from March to July, but it might prove to be resident. 

285. Caprimulgus poliocephalus Montane Nightjar 558 
R BR (2, 3) 

A common resident of grassland and overgrown cultivation above 
1500m on the Didinga, Dongotona and Imatong Mountains. 

Caprimulgus rufigena Rufous-cheeked Nightjar 550 

No records, but this intra-African Migrant should occur in the 
west on passage or as a non-breeding visitor from April to August. 

286. Caprimulgus stellatus Star-spotted Nightjar 555 
R? LM? NBR 

The race simplex is rare in dry Acacia scrub in the southeast where 
reported from Torit and near the Kenya border in May. 

287. Caprimulgus tristigma Freckled Nightjar 554 
R BR (4) 

The nominate race is fairly common but extremely local, and is 
restricted to rocky hills up to 2000m. Recorded from Kajo Kaji 
to Imatong and Boma; records around Tambura might refer to the 
West African race sharpei. 

288. Macrodipteryx longipennis Standard-winged Nightjar 563 
AM LM R? BR (2 - 5) 

A common breeding visitor to savanna throughout from August to May. 
Most numerous, especially on roads at night, in April/May, when it 
moves to the north; it returns south in August. Males are in 
breeding plumage from November to April. 



42 



289. Macrodipteryx vexillarius Pennant-winged Nightjar 564 
AM NBR 

This intra-African migrant is a common non-breeding visitor from 
February to August to broad-leaved tree savanna in the southwest. 
It ranges north to Torit, Lado and Wau, and occasionally to Darfur 
in the North Sudan. Males leave in August with fully developed 
pennants . 

Family APODIDAE Swifts 

290. Apus aequatorialis Mottled Swift 641 
AM? NBR 

There are a few records of passage birds along the southern border: 
from Kapoeta (50 moving north in February) ; Maridi, Yei, Juba and 
the Aloma Plateau; single birds moving south during July /August; 
Upper Talanga (Imatong); 100 moving south during October. These 
movements support observations by Lynes of summering in Darfur. 

291. Apus affinis Little Swift 643 
R? LM? AM? PMW? NBR 

Status uncertain. Only a few records, probably of the nominate 
race: many were seen at Jebel Kasangor and Boma in February 
including flocks roosting in caves, a few frequented bridges at 
Nzara and Tambura in August; a few at Juba in October, coming to 
drink in the morning with Common and Alpine Swifts. 

292. Apus apus Common Swift 636 
PMP PMW 

Common throughout in fairly large numbers on autumn and spring 
passage during late August/September and April/early May. Only a 
.few remain to winter. The seasonal status of the two races, 
nominate and pekinensis needs clarification. 

293. Apus caffer White-rumped Swift 644 
R? LM NBR 

Probably resident. The race streubelii was found roosting together 
with Red-rumped Swallows under a bridge north of Juba. Small 
numbers sometimes occur with other swifts around Imatong and Aweil 
from late August to October. 

294. Apus melba Alpine Swift 640 
PMW PMP 

The nominate race is a regular but uncommon passage migrant from 
September to November and from February to April, mainly along 
the Nile and eastwards to the Ethiopian border. 

295. Apus pallidus Pallid Swift 638 
PMW V? 

This species, probably the race illyricus has been collected by 
Traylor at Bengengai, far south of its known winter quarters at 
Jebel Marra (Traylor & Archer 1982). 

296. Cypsiurus parvus Palm Swift 646 
R LM BR (3 - 5) 

The nominate race is a very common resident throughout wherever 
there are palms, except along the southern border where it is 
replaced by myochrous . There is some north-south movement, often 
together with other swifts. 



43 



297. Schoutedenapus myoptilus Scarce Swift 639 
LM AM? NBR 

A common breeding visitor to the forest region of Imatong from late 
March to late September- It probably breeds in cliffs above 2000m. 

The following species might occur but have not yet been recorded : 
Apus barbatus African Black Swift 636 

Apus horus Horus Swift 645 

Apus niansae Nyanza Swift 637 

Telacanthura ussheri Mottle-throated Spinetail 647 

Family COLIIDAE Mousebirds 

298. Colius striatus Speckled Mousebird 566 
R BR (3, 4) 

A common resident in broad-leaved tree savanna and forest edges, 
though less common in the north and absent from the northwest and 
the Ilemi Triangle. Replaced by the Blue-naped Mousebird in 
Acacia woodland. Three races occur: leucotis at Boma and along 
the Ethiopian border, leucophthalmus in Zande along the Zaire 
border and jebelensis elsewhere. 

299. Urocolius macrourus Blue-naped Mousebird 568 
R % BR (3, 4, 9) 

Fairly common in Acacia savanna and arid scrub country. The race 
griseogularis occurs to about 9°N, north of where it is replaced 
by the nominate race; pulcher occurs in the southeast, east of 
Tor it and south of Boma. 

Family TROGONIDAE Trogons 

300. Apaloderma narina Narina's Trogon 570 
R? NBR 

Uncommon, but easily overlooked in forest and better wooded savanna. 
The nominate race occurs from Kajo Kaji to Didinga and Boma. 
The race brachyurum should occur west of the Nile in Zande, but has 
not yet been recorded. 

Family ALCEDINIDAE Kingfishers 

Sub-family Cerylinae 

301. Ceryle maxima Giant Kingfisher 466 
R LM BR (11) 

Uncommon along permanent rivers in better wooded savanna and forest. 
Records from Boro River, River Lol, Wau, Tambura, Maridi, Aloma 
Plateau, Juba, and in the Imatongs up to 2000m. 

302. Ceryle rudis Pied Kingfisher 465 
R LM BR (1, 8) 

Common at rivers, lakes and pools throughout except in the south- 
east where records are few. Performs fairly long distance move- 
ments which need clarification. 



44 



Sub-family Alcedininae 

JO 3. Alcedo cristata Malachite Kingfisher 470 

R? LM?? NBR 

The nominate race is common at swamps and rivers throughout except 
in the Ilemi Triangle and the forests of Imatong. 

304. Alcedo quadribrachys Shining Blue Kingfisher 469 

R? NBR 

The race guentheri is uncommon, frequenting forest streams along 
the Zaire border from the Aloma Plateau to Zande. 

J05. Alcedo semitorquata Half-collared Kingfisher 468 

R NBR 

Uncommon: recorded only from Boma, where it was collected along a 
fast-running woodland stream (Nikolaus 1979) . 

J06. Halcyon badia Chocolate-backed Kingfisher 478 

R? NBR 

Uncommon in the forests of Zande, where collected only at Bengengai 
(Tray lor & Archer 1982) . 

507. Halcyon chelicuti Striped Kingfisher 479 
R? LM NBR 

The nominate race is common throughout, mainly in the drier parts 
of savanna and in cultivation; this species is not dependent on 
water. Most birds move north from May to September. 

508. Halcyon leucocephala Chestnut-bellied Kingfisher 477 
LM AM? BR (3, 4) 

The nominate race occurs in savanna throughout during the dry 
season. It arrives along the southern border between late November 
and January, and moves north to breed on sandy river banks during 
March/April. In Darfur, breeding birds are present from April to 
to June. Southward movement during May /June is seldom noticed. 
There are single records from Juba in July and September which 
might refer to the southern race pallidiventris . 

309. Halcyon malimbica Blue-breasted Kingfisher 475 

R NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common in gallery and bowl forests on 
the Zaire border where recorded from Aloma Plateau, Aza Forest, 
Zande and Tambura. 

. Halcyon senegalensis Woodland Kingfisher 473 

LM AM NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common and widely distributed. Present 
in southern areas only in the dry season (September to March) and 
in northern areas from March to July; it arrives in Darfur in June. 
The southern race cyanoleuca is occasionally reported in the rainy 
season from Torit (May) and Upper Nile Province. The status and 
movements of the two races need clarification. 

11. Ispidina lecontei Dwarf Kingfisher 472 

R? NBR 

Uncommon in the forests of Zande where collected by Traylor 
(Traylor & Archer 1982) . 



45 



312. Ispidina picta Pygmy Kingfisher 471 
R AM BR (3, 4) 

The nominate race is a common resident, mainly in better wooded 
savanna and gallery forest, and is absent or rare, in the Sudd 
region. It is not dependent on water. The Intra-African migrant 
race natalensis was common in June/July during its non-breeding 
season in the lowland forests of ImatOng and the Aloma Plateau. 

Family MEROPIDAE Bee-eaters 

313. Merops albicollis White- throated Bee-eater 486 
LM AM NBR 

A fairly common non-breeding visitor from North Sudan. It frequents 
various types of savanna, mainly along the southern borders, from 
January to March, also recorded occasionally during April to June, 
August and November. 

314. Merops apiaster Eurasian Bee-eater 481 
PMP PMW? 

A common passage migrant during September to November and March/ 
April. There are records also for August, January and February. 

315. Merops breweri Black-headed Bee-eater W 447 
R? LM? NBR 

There are several sight records of this forest species from 
Bengengai during February and March 1977 - 82 (Tray lor & Archer 
1982, Hillman in litt.) 

316. Merops bulocki Red - throated Bee-eater 492 
R LM BR (1 - 3, 12) 

The race frenatus is a fairly common resident in broad-leaved tree 
savanna southwest of Torit - Lado - Tonj - Wedweil - Kafia Kingi 
and around Kongor and the Baro and Akobo Rivers on the Ethiopian 
border. It breeds in high river banks. 

317. Merops hirundineus Swallow-tailed Bee-eater 496 
R? LM NBR 

The race heuglini is locally quite common in better wooded savanna 
southwest of the line Kapoeta - Bor - Boro River, but it also 
frequents wooded areas on the Ethiopian border at the Baro River. 
Information is needed on seasonal movements; records are scarce 
from April to August when birds are presumably further south. 

318. Merops nubicus Carmine Bee-eater 484 
R LM BR (3) 

The nominate race is a common breeding visitor in the dry season 
from November to April . During the rains most birds depart for 
North Sudan, but it is recorded all the year round at Juba. Breeds 
in very large colonies in steep river banks. 

319. Merops oreobates Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater 489 
R BR (1, 2) 

A common resident of forest edges, clearings and cultivation on the 
Imatong and Didinga Mountains above 1800m. 

320. Merops orientalis Little Green Bee-eater 483 
R LM BR (3) 
A fairly common resident of wooded savanna with sandy soil ; 



46 



recorded from Kapoeta to Lado, at Amadi, and north to Malakal and 
Renk as well as at Aweil and Wedweil. The racial situation is not 
clear; records along the Nile and to the east possibly all refer 
to Cleopatra but western birds at least are viridissimus . 

321. Merops persicus Blue-cheeked Bee-eater 482 
PMW 

The nominate Palaearctic race is a common winter visitor to swamps 
rivers of the Sudd region, mainly from October to March. The first 
birds arrive in the Aweil - Malakal region in late August. 

322. Merops pusillus Little Bee-eater 488 
R . BR (3) 

Fairly common throughout, mainly in open bushed grassland. Three 
races occur: the nominate race west of about 30 E and ocularis 
east of 30 E, itself replaced by cyanostictus in the extreme south- 
east. The exact range of these races needs further clarification. 

323. Merops superciliosus Madagascar Bee-eater 482 
AM NBR 

An uncommon to rare non-breeding visitor, reported from Kapoeta in 
May /June and at Bongo south of Juba in August. 

324. Merops variegatus Blue-breasted Bee-eater 490 
R NBR 

The race lafresnayii is fairly common in grassy savanna on the 
Boma Plateau. The race loringi could occur around the Didinga 
Mountains since it has been reported from Kidepo National Park 
in Uganda. 

Family CORACIIDAE Rollers 

325. Coracias abyssinica Abyssinian Roller 458 
LM NBR 

Seasonally common from October to April throughout savanna and dry 
open grassland with bushes. In the Torit - Lake Turkana region it 
also occurs in May /June. There are thus distinct seasonal move- 
ments. The breeding grounds are probably in North Sudan and 
Ethiopia. 

Coracias caudata Lilac-breasted Roller 460 

The race lorti occurs in dry Acacia savanna around Lake Turkana 
but has not yet been recorded from the Sudan. 

326. Coracias cyanogaster Blue-bellied Roller 462 
R? LM? NBR 

Status unknown; recorded rarely in woodland between Kajo Kaji and 
Maridi, but not recently. 

327. Coracias garrulus Eurasian Roller 457 
PMP 

The nominate race is a fairly common Palaearctic autumn passage 
migrant in October /November in dry Acacia savanna east of the Nile. 
There are no spring records. 

328. Coracias naevia Rufous-crowned Roller 461 
LM AM? BR (5) 

The nominate race is uncommon in dry woodland. Small numbers are 

recorded from Wau, Ton j , Amadi, Lado, Kajo Kaji and the southeast. 



47 



Breeding birds (Wau to Darfur) return from the south during March 

to May, and leave again in late July. Non-breeders are present in 

the southeast from November to March. There are no records from 
August to October. 

329. Eurystomus glaucurus Broad-billed Roller 463 
LM AM? BR (4, 5) 

The race afer is a common breeding visitor from March to August in 
better wooded savanna north of Wau. In August 1978 very strong 
southward passage (up to 500 birds in one afternoon) was noticed 
at various places west of the Nile. The race suahelicus and the 
nominate Malagasy race could occur as visitors. 

Family UPUPIDAE Hoopoe 

330. Upupa epops Hoopoe 517 
PMW PMP LM AM? BR (10) 

A fairly common winter visitor in savanna throughout, but mainly 
in dry Acacia woodland. Except in the southeast nearly all 
records are from December to March and refer to nominate Palae- 
arctic visitors. The race senegalensis which breeds uncommonly 
in the North Sudan and in the extreme southeast is probably a non- 
breeding visitor throughout. More information is required on 
racial status and movements. The southern race africana can be 
expected since it has recently been recorded in Darfur in July 
(G. Nikolaus pers. obs.). 

Family PHOENICULIDAE Wood Hoopoes 

331. Phoeniculus aterrimus Black Wood Hoopoe 523/525 
R NBR 

P. cavei (Macdonald 1946) is treated as synonymous with this 
species. The race emini is an uncommon resident, usually in pairs, 
and frequents dry open country throughout. 

332. Phoeniculus bollei White-headed Wood Hoopoe 522 
R NBR 

The race jacksoni is a common resident of the Imatong forests, 
mainly above 2000m, but occasionally in the foothills; normally 
in small parties. 

333. Phoeniculus minor Abyssinian Wood Hoopoe 527 
R NBR 

The race cabanisi is a fairly common resident in the dry woodland 
souteast of Boma - Lado - Juba. 

334. Phoeniculus purpureus Green Wood Hoopoe 519 
R LM? NBR 

The race niloticus is a common resident and wanderer throughout in 
all types of woodland, but absent from the forest along the south- 
ern border and the open Sudd region; less common in the north. 
Usually moves around in noisy troops. The race marwitzi could 
occur along the Uganda and Kenya borders. 



48 



Family BUCEROTIDAE Hornbills 

Sub-family Bucerotinae 

335. Bycanistes brevis Silvery-cheeked Hornbill 501 
R? NBR 

Fairly common and probably resident in better woodland and gallery 
forest on the Boma Hills. 

336. Bycanistes subcylindricus Black and White Casqued Hornbill 500 
R LM NBR 

The race subquadratus is a fairly common resident in better wooded 
savanna and gallery forest southwest of Didinga, Amadi, Aweil and 
Boro River. There is indication of northward movement during the 
rains. 

337. Ceratogymna atrata Black -wattled Hornbill 503 
R NBR 

An uncommon resident of bowl and gallery forests of the Aloma 
Plateau and at Bengengai. 

338. Tockus alboterminatus Crowned Hornbill 509 
R NBR 

The race geloensis is an uncommon resident in better wooded savanna 
and gallery forests of the Boma Hills. 

339. Tockus camurus Red-billed Dwarf Hornbill 514 
■ R BR (2) 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident of gallery forest in 
Zande, often near swampy ground. 

340. Tockus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Hornbill 505 
R LM? NBR 

The nominate race is a common resident throughout in woodland and 
wooded savanna, absent only from the forest regions of the south 
and open grasslands from the Sudd to the Ethiopian border. 

341. Tockus fasciatus Pied Hornbill 510 
R BR (3) 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident of gallery and bowl 
forests along the Zaire border from the Aloma Plateau to Aza Forest 
and Bengengai. 

342. Tockus flavirostris Yellow-billed Hornbill 506 
R NBR 

The nominate race is an uncommon resident in hilly dry Acacia 
savanna in the extreme southeast. 

343. Tockus hemprichii Hemprich's Hornbill 512 
R? LM? NBR 

Rare but possibly resident; recorded from Didinga, Jebel Kasangor 
and Boma, frequenting rocky hills in semi-arid country. 

344. Tockus jacksoni Jackson's Hornbill 508 
R NBR 

A common resident in dry Acacia woodland in the southeast, east of 
Torit. 



49 



345. Tockus nasutus Grey Hornbill 504 
R LM BR (1, 2) 

The nominate race is a common resident throughout in any kind of 
woodland, absent only from the forests in the south and the open 
grasslands of the Sudd. Some birds move north during the rains. 
Appears to concentrate seasonally in roosting areas giving the 
impression of migration. 

Sub-family Bucoracinae 

346. Bucorvus abyssinicus Abyssinian Ground Hornbill 516 
R? LM? BR (6 - 8) 

Uncommon, usually in pairs or small parties, in open woodland or 
tree savanna southwest of Kapoeta - Jebel Kasangor - Lake Nibor - 
Tonj - Aweil - Bahr-el-Arab. It occurs up to 2000m on the Didinga 
Mountains . 

Family CAPITONIDAE Barbets , Tinkerbirds 

347. Gymnobucco bonapartei Grey- throated Barbet 586 
R NBR 

The race cinereiceps is a locally common resident of forest and 
forest edge up to 2500m, usually frequenting treetops in small 
noisy parties. Recorded at Bengengai, Imatong and the Dongotona 
Mountains . 

348. Lybius bidentatus Double- toothed Barbet 573 
R BR (10) 

Fairly common resident in better wooded savanna, gallery forest and 
forest edge at low altitude, frequenting large fig trees. The race 
aethiops occurs at Boma and aequatorialis from Didinga to Lado and 
Tambura . 

349. Lybius guifsobalito Black-billed Barbet % . 584 
R NBR 

A fairly common resident in better wooded savanna east of Malakal - 
Li Rangu, except in the arid extreme southeast and the open grass- 
lands of the Sudd; often in gardens. 

350. Lybius hirsutus Hairy-breasted Barbet 582 
R NBR 

The race ansorgii is an uncommon resident along the Zaire border 
from the Aloma Plateau to Aza Forest and Zande, frequenting fig 
trees in gallery and bowl forest. 

351. Lybius lachrymosus Spot ted- flanked Barbet 584 
R NBR 

The nominate race is uncommon in better wooded savanna and gallery 
forest at low altitude. Recorded to date only from the Didinga 
Mountains, but it could occur west to Kajo Kaji. 

352. Lybius leucocephalus White-headed Barbet 576 
R NBR 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident of well wooded 
savanna. It occurs mainly west of the Nile, but occasionally 
east to Kidepo River. 



50 



353. Lybius leucomelas Red-fronted Barbet 585 
R BR (1, 8, 11) 

The nominate race is an uncommon resident of dry bushland and dry 
open woodland. Apparently restricted to the area Juba - Didinga - 
Bor, but it could possibly occur north to Shambe . 

354. Lybius melanocephalus Black-throated Barbet • 583 
R BR (12) 

The race stigma to thorax is a common resident of dry thornbush 
country in the extreme southeast, frequenting thick bushes. 

355. Lybius rolleti Black-breasted Barbet 572 
R NBR 

'A fairly common resident in better wooded savanna southwest of 
Kapoeta - Tonj - Bahr-el-Arab , frequenting large fig trees. 

356. Lybius vieilloti Vieillot's Barbet 578 
R BR (7, 8) 

The nominate race is locally common but widely distributed in dry 
woodland with thick bushes, mainly west of the Nile. Recorded from 
Amadi, Raffile, Wau, Tonj, Aweil, Gogrial and from Malakal to Renk. 

357. Pogoniulus chrysoconus Ye How- fronted Tinkerbird 595 
R BR (4.8) 

The nominate race is a common resident throughout in dry woodland 
with thick bushes, except in the arid extreme southeast and the 
forests along the southern border. 

358. Pogoniulus leucolaima Lemon-rumped Tinkerbird 596 
R BR (1, 11, 12) 

The race mfumbiri is a common resident of forest and forest edge 
up to 2200m along the southern border, from Bengengai to Aza 
Forest, the Aloma Plateau, Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga. 

359. Pogoniulus pusillus Red- fronted Tinkerbird 594 
R NBR 

The race af finis is a common resident on rocky hills in dry wood- 
land from the foothills east of Imatong to Lake Turkana. 

360. Trachyiaemus purpuratus Yellow-billed Barbet 604 
R BR (3) 

The race elgonensis is a fairly common resident of forest, forest 
clearings and secondary growth on the Imatong Mountains up to 
2200m; also recorded at Bengengai. 

361. Trachyphonus darnaudii d'Arnaud's Barbet 603 
R BR (1, 2) 

The nominate race is a very common resident of dry open I savanna , 
even found in gardens. It occurs, usually in pairs, in the region 
southeast of Boma - Bor - Amadi - Juba. 

362. Trachyphonus erythrocephalus Red and Yellow Barbet 601 
R BR (5) 

The race versicolor is a fairly common resident in the dry scrub 
country with hard red soil in the extreme southeast from Torit to 
the Ethiopian border. 



51 



Family INDICATORIDAE Honeyguides 

363. Indicator exilis Least Honeyguide 610 
LM BR (1, 3) 

The race pachyrhynchus is a fairly common but local breeding 
visitor from October to March, frequenting forest, secondary 
growth and well-wooded savanna. It is recorded from Bengengai, 
Bongo River, near Aweil, north of Boro River and Imatong. It is 
parasitic on tinkerbirds . 

364. Indicator indicator Black-throated Honeyguide 605 
R? LM NBR 

The nominate race is locally common in woodlands, gardens and open 
bush savanna throughout. Recorded from November to April and 
exceptionally between May and September on the Uganda border. 
Large numbers caught in April north of the Boro River might have 
been on migration to North Sudan. Parasitic on hole nesting birds 
such as barbets, woodpeckers, bee-eaters and starlings. 

365. Indicator maculatus Spotted Honeyguide 607 
R LM? BR (3) 

The race stictithorax is a fairly common resident in the forests of 
Bengengai (Traylor & Archer 1982) . There is one recent January 
sight record from Gilo (Nikolaus 1982) . Probably parasitic on 
woodpeckers . 

366. Indicator minor Lesser Honeyguide- 608 
R? LM NBR 

Uncommon throughout in any type of woodland. Some apparently move 
north during the rains. Racial status and distribution are not 
clear, but diadematus probably occurs throughout except where 
perhaps replaced by riggenbachi along the southern border. 
Parasitic on small barbets, woodpeckers, swallows and kingfishers. 

367. Indicator variegatus Scaly- throated Honeyguide 606 
R NBR 

A fairly common resident of forests and secondary growth at 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga up to 3000m. Parasitic on 
woodpeckers. 

368. Prodotiscus insignis Cassin's Honeybird 613 
The nominate race is an uncommon breeding visitor to the Imatongs, 
from January to May, frequenting secondary growth and forest at 
about 2000m. Parasitic on white-eyes and probably small warblers. 

Family PICTDAE Woodpeckers, Wrynecks 

Sub-family Jynginae 

369. Jynx ruficollis Red-throated Wryneck 635 
R? NBR 

Rare : the nominate race has been recorded once from Ibba River 
(Woodman 1936) . 

370. Jynx torquilla Wryneck 634 
PMW 

The nominate race is an uncommon winter visitor in open woodland 
and dry Acacia savanna from November to March. Recorded from 
Kapoeta to Yei, Lado, Tali Post and Meshra er Req. 



52 



Slab-family Picinae 

371. Campethera abingoni Golden-tailed Woodpecker 622 
R? NBR 

The race chrysura is uncommon in forest edge and well wooded 
savanna along the Zaire border at Maridi, Yambio and near Tambura. 

372. Campethera caroli Brown-eared Woodpecker 615 
R BR (3) 

The race budongoensis is a fairly common resident of forest at low 
altitude, recorded from Imatong, the Aloma Plateau and Bengengai. 

373. Campethera nivosa Buff-spotted Woodpecker 616 
R NBR 

The race herberti occurs in forest at Bengengai where it is 
apparently rare . 

374. Campethera nubica Nubian Woodpecker 619 
R BR (3, 4) 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident in any kind of wood- 
land, mainly east of the Nile, where it replaces the Fine-spotted 
Woodpecker. West of the Nile the only records are from Lado to 
Yei and the Aloma Plateau. 

375. Campethera cailliautii Little Spotted (Green-backed) Woodpecker 614 
r NBR 

The race permista is an uncommon resident in forest and secondary 
growth in Zande where recorded from Zakure Forest and Bengengai. 

376. Campethera punctuligera Fine-spotted Woodpecker 621 
R BR (3, 4) 

The race balia is a fairly common resident in better wooded savanna 
west of the Nile, where recorded from Maridi, Tambura, Rumbek, Wau 
to the Boro River and Kafia Kingi. A record from Torit needs 
confirmation . 

377. Dendropicos fuscescens Cardinal Woodpecker 623 
R BR (12) 

Locally common along the eastern and southern border. Two races 
occur: lepidus in better wooded savanna and forest clearings up 
to 2200 m along the southern border from Tambura to Imatong and 
Didinga, and on the Ethiopian border north of Boma; hemprichii 
in the dry Acacia savanna east of Kapoeta. 

378. Dendropicos poecilolaemus Uganda Spotted Woodpecker 626 
R NBR 

Little recorded, but possibly not uncommon in open wooded savanna 
and cultivation. So far only recorded from Kajo Kaji, Maridi and 
Numatina River. 

579. Mesopicos goertae Grey Woodpecker 630 

R NBR 

A fairly common resident of woodland, cultivation and forest edge 
on Imatong and Didinga up to 2200m. The race centralis occurs 
throughout except along the Ethiopian border where it is replaced 
by spodocephalus . 



53 



380. Mesopicos xantholophus Yellow-crested Woodpecker 632 
R NBR 

Apparently rare in forests along the Zaire border where recorded 
only from the Aloma Plateau and Bengengai. 

381. Picoides obsoletus Brown-backed Woodpecker 627 
R BR (3) 

The nominate race is fairly common in dry open wooded savanna through- 
out. 

382. Thripias namaquus Bearded Woodpecker 629 
R BR (3) 

The race schoensis is rather uncommon and local in well wooded 
savanna. Recorded from Raga, Gogrial, Tonj , the Imatong foothills 
and Boya Hills. 

Family ALAUDIDAE Larks 

383. Calandrella brachydactyla Short- toed Lark 684 
PMW 

Locally common in small parties in the arid savanna north of Malakal 
from late October to early March. Three Palaearctic races could occur: 
nominate, hermonensis and longipennis . 

384. Eremopterix leucotis Chestnut-backed Sparrow Lark 679 
R? LM? BR (1, 11, 12) 

Fairly common on short grassland in the dry season, from September 
to March, especially after recent burning. Found along the Nile 
north of Juba in the Sudd and around Tonj and Wau. Probably moves 
north during the rainy season. The nominate race occurs throughout 
most of the range, but is probably replaced by melanocephala north 
of Kodok. 

385. Eremopterix nigriceps White-fronted Sparrow Lark 680 
R NBR 

The race albifrons is locally common in the extreme north around Renk 
on arid short grass plains, showing a preference for sandy ground. 

386. Eremopterix signata Chestnut-headed Sparrow Lark 681 
R LM? NBR 

The race harrisoni is a common resident in the extreme south east, 
frequenting open stony savanna. 

Galerida cristata Crested Lark 675 

In sandy and stony semi-desert country the following races could 
occur: somaliensis near Lake Turkana and isabellina around Renk. 

387. Galerida modes ta Sun Lark 677 
R LM BR (7) 

Fairly common south-west of Torit - Rumbek - Aweil favouring open 
ironstone clearings with short grass in woodland and also around 
Malakal. Mainly resident, but with local movements in the dry season, 
The race involved is bucoloca , except along the Zaire border where 
the nominate race occurs . 



54 



388. Mirafra albicauda Northern White-tailed Bush Lark 655 
R? NBR 

Rather local on black cotton soil in the north around Kaka and Kodok, 
and along the Sobat river. 

389. Mirafra cantillans Singing Bush Lark 654 
R? LM? NBR 

The race marginata is locally common in short grassland and open 
Acacia savanna, from Juba and Lado east to the Ethiopian border. 
The race chadensis may occur around Renk. 

390. Mirafra cordofanica Kordofan Bush Lark 656 
R? NBR 

Rare with only one record, from Lake No (H & M 1970) . Probably 
occurs elsewhere along the northern border in red sandy soil areas. 

391. Mirafra erythropygia Red- tailed Bush Lark 667 
LM BR(1, 3) 

An uncommon and little recorded breeding visitor from December to 
April, often noticed on recently burnt grassland. Recorded from 
Boma, Mongalla, Kajo Kaji, Malakal , Wau and Riki River. It moves 
to open bush savanna in the North Sudan during the rainy season. 

392. Mirafra hypermetra Red-winged Bush Lark 657 
R NBR 

Locally common in bushed grassland in the south east. The race 
kidepoensis occurs along the Uganda border from Rejaf to Lake Turkana. 
The race kathangorensis is known only from the area around Jebel 
Kathangor but might occur east to the Ethiopian border. 

393. Mirafra poecilosterna Pink-breasted Lark 665 
R? LM? NBR 

Uncommon in Acacia short grass savanna in the extreme southeast, 
east of Kapoeta. There seem to be some local movements for recent 
records are confined to May /June. 

394. Mirafra rufocinnamomea Flappet Lark 660 
R BR (6 - 8) 

Fairly common throughout in tall grass savanna and open woodland. 
Five races occur, but their exact ranges need clarification: 
sobatensis from the Baro /Sobat River across to Lake No, and possibly 
omoensis around Boma; torrida along the Uganda border west to Kajo 
Kaji; tigrina west of it, mainly along the Zaire border, possibly 
up to Wau. It is not clear whether birds around Boro/Riki River also 
belong to tigrina or whether they mark the southern limit of furensis , 

Family HIRUNDINIDAE Swallows, Martins, Rough-wings 

395. Delichon urbica House Martin 1074 
PMP PMW 

The nominate race is a rather uncommon Palaearctic passage migrant 
throughout in late September/October and April/early May but a 
regular and common winter visitor at higher altitudes of the Imatong, 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts. 



55 



396. Hirundo abyssinica Striped Swallow 1065 
R? LM BR(4, 11, 12) 

Rather local in better wooded savanna and forest clearings. The race 
bannermanni might be resident in the extreme northwest from the Boro 
and Riki Rivers south to Wau; the nominate race possibly breeds in 
April around Boma; unitatis breeds in the Kajo Kaji - Didinga region 
in November /Dec ember and migrates, probably southwards, in April/May 
when there is a regular passage through Gilo. 

397. Hirundo aethiopica Ethiopian Swallow 1057 
R? LM BR (4 - 6) 

The nominate race is fairly common in the Juba - Lado - Maridi region , 
mainly from August to March, and north of Wau - Aweil - Malakal , mainly 
from May to September, frequenting rivers and towns. More information 
is needed about status and movements. 

398. Hirundo daurica Red-rumped Swallow 1062 
PM? R? LM BR(1, 6) 

The race domicella is fairly common and probably resident along small 
rivers at low altitude throughout, breeding under bridges. The race 
emini occurs in the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts. from September 
to February apparently as a non-breeding visitor. The Palaearctic 
race rufula could occur. 

399. Hirundo fuligula African Rock Martin ' 1073 
R BR (7, 8) 

The race fusciventris is an uncommon resident in suitable rocky local- 
ities at Kajo Kaji, Imatong, Dongotona, Didinga and Boma 

400. Hirundo griseopyga Grey-rumped Swallow 1066 
LM? BR (1) 

The nominate race is a very local breeding visitor from December to 
April to small rivers in better wooded savanna, reported from Boro 
River, Wau, Rumbek and Amadi . 

401. Hirundo rustica Swallow 1054 
PMP PMW 

The nominate race is a common passage migrant and winter visitor 
throughout, but never in very large numbers. It occurs from late 
August to April. Passage is noticed from September to November and 
in April. 

402. Hirundo semirufa Rufous-chested Swallow 1064 
LM NBR 

The race gordoni is locally uncommon in the Kajo Kaji - Mongalla - 
Imatong region from November to April, probably as a non-breeding 
visitor. Birds at Boro River in late March and April could be on 
passage to breeding grounds in Darfur. 

403. Hirundo senegalensis Mosque Swallow 1063 
R LM . BR (1, 2, 12) 

The race saturatior is a fairly common resident on the Imatong, 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts. up to 2000m, breeding from December to 
February. The species also occurs at rivers and lakes elsewhere, 
mainly from January to April and in July and August; these records 
could refer to saturatior or to the nominate race, which breeds in 
Darfur from June to September. 



56 



404. Hirundo smithii Wire-tailed Swallow 1061 
R? BR (2 - 4, 11) 

The nominate race is rather uncommon and local in the southwest where 
it breeds under bridges. Recorded from Kajo Kaji, Lado, Maridi, 
Tambura, Aweil, Raga and Boro River. 

405. Psalidoprocne albiceps White-headed Roughwing 1080 
R LM? BR (8, 9) 

The nominate race is a common resident of forest and forest edge on 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga up to 3000m. Less common around Kajo 
Kaji and on the Aloma Plateau. 

406. .Psalidoprocne pristoptera Black Roughwing 1076 

R? LM NBR 

Rather uncommon along forest edges and in better wooded savanna. 
White underwinged birds of the race obaginea occur along the Zaire 
border from the Aloma Plateau to Tambura. Birds around Boro/Riki 
River in April which appeared to have grey underwings were probably 
of the race chalybea . 

407. Riparia cincta Banded Martin 1070 
LM? AM? NBR 

Small numbers occur in the Juba area between May and July; these 
could involve the race suahelica and/or erlangeri. 

408. Riparia paludicola African Sand Martin 1069 
LM AM? NBR 

An uncommon non-breeding visitor, mainly along the southern border 
from December to February. Records undoubtedly involve the race 
dubius , but minor from North Sudan could also occur. 

409. Riparia riparia Sand Martin 1068 
PMP PMW 

The nominate race is probably the most numerous Palaearctic winter 
visitor to the Sudd region, arriving from late August and leaving in 
late April, favouring open waters and open swampy grassland. 
Uncommon elsewhere, and occurring mainly on passage during September/ 
October and late March/April. 

Family DICRURIDAE Drongos 

0. Dicrurus adsimilis Drongo 1088 
R " BR (6, 11) 

The race divaricata is a common resident of woodland at low altitude 
throughout; coracinusus is a forest bird confined to the Zaire border, 

1. Dicruris ludwigii Square-tailed Drongo 1089 
R NBR 

The race sharpei is rather uncommon, confined to forest thicket up 
to 2000m on the southern slopes of the Imatongs. 

Family ORIOLIDAE Orioles 

2. Oriolus auratus African Golden Oriole 1165 
LM? AM NBR 

The nominate race is a common dry season visitor throughout to better 
wooded savanna. Birds move north from May to September. 



57 



413. Oriolus larvatus Black -headed Oriole 1167 
R? NBR 

The race rolleti is fairly common in forests, better wooded savanna 
and dry woodland southeast of Juba, Bor and Boma. 

414. Oriolus nigripennis Black-winged Oriole 1169 
R NBR 

Typically a bird of lowland forests but common on Imatong up to 2000m, 
also recorded from Zande and Bengengai. 

415. Oriolus oriolus Golden Oriole 1164 
PMP 

The nominate race is a common Palaearctic passage migrant in North 
Sudan from September to November. In the South, recorded only along 
the southern border and the Nile. Frequenting better wooded savanna 
and large trees in gardens, but only during March, suggesting that 
they overfly on autumn passage. 

Family CORVIDAE Crows, Piapiac 

416. Corvus albus Pied Crow 1172 
R LM? NBR 

Widespread in the dry season in any open country. Most common and 
probably resident around towns, though breeding is not yet recorded. 
Rare in the forest region along the Zaire border and in the arid 
extreme southeast. 

417. Corvus capensis Cape Rook 1173 
R LM BR (1, 2, 12) 

Locally common in the dry season in open grass plains with scattered 
trees, mainly east of the Nile north to Melut. Most birds seem to 
move to the drier southeast in the rainy season. 

418. Corvus rhipidurus Fan-tailed Raven 1177 
R? NBR 

A typical resident of rocky hills southeast of Juba - Boma; rare 
further north along the Ethiopian border. 

419. Corvus ruficollis Brown-necked Raven 1171 
R? NBR 

The race edithae is an uncommon resident in the arid plains east of 
Kapoeta. An apparent hybrid between the Pied Crow and this species 
has been seen at Jebel Kasangor. 

420. Ptilostomus afer Piapiac 1179 
R LM? NBR 

Common in small parties in open country throughout, but absent along 
the Ethiopian border. Often together with cattle and around villages; 
where they favour Boras sus palms for roosting. 

Family PARIDAE Tits 

421. Parus albiventris White-bellied Tit 1155 
R BR ( 1 ) 

A common resident of the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts. above 
1600m, frequenting forest edges and secondary growth. 



58 



422. Parus funereus Dusky Tit 1157 
R BR (3) 

A rather uncommon resident in lowland forests on Imatong, sometimes 

occurring in forest edge and secondary growth up to 2000m at Gilo. 

423. Parus leucomelas Black Tit 1154 
R NBR 

The race guineensis is a fairly common resident of open bushed 
savanna with scattered trees, less common east of the Nile. The 
nominate race could occur north of the Sobat River. 

Family REMIZIDAE Penduline Tits 

424. Remiz musculus Mouse-coloured Penduline Tit 1161 
R BR (12) 

An uncommon resident in semi-arid Acacia short grass savanna in the 
southeast from Lalo to the Kenya border. 

425. Remiz parvulus Yellow Penduline Tit 1163 

R NBR 

The nominate race is an uncommon resident of better wooded savanna 
west of the Nile. 

426. Remiz punctifrons Sennar Penduline Tit 1162 
R . NBR 

Uncommon in dry woodland, replacing the Yellow Penduline Tit in the 
drier habitat north of Malakal . 

Family SALPORNITHIDAE Spotted Creeper 

427. Salpornis spilonota Spotted Creeper 1283 
R NBR 

The race emini is a rare and local resident of open woodland from 
Kajo Kaji to Tambura. 

Family TIMALIIDAE Babblers 

428. Alcippe abyssinica African Hill Babbler 740 
R BR (1, 11, 12) 

The nominate race is a common resident of thick forest undergrowth 
and forest edge above 1800m on the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga 
Mts. 

429. Ptyrticus turdinus Thrush Babbler 734 
R NBR 

The nominate race is rather uncommon, frequenting the undergrowth 
of gallery and bowl forests from Yei to Bengengai. 

430. Trichastoma albipectus Scaly-breasted Illadopsis 737 

»R BR (8, 10) 

A rather uncommon species of lowland forest undergrowth, known from 
Imatong and Bengengai. 

431. Trichastoma fulvescens Brown Illadopsis 735 
R BR (8) 

The race ugandae is a common resident of the undergrowth of lowland 
forest from Imatong to Bengengai. 



59 



432. Trichastoma puveli Puvel's Illadopsis W 667 
R BR (3) 

Only recorded from Bengengai where it is perhaps a fairly common 
resident of forest undergrowth. (Tray lor & Archer 1982) . 

{Trichastoma rufipennis Pale-breasted Illadopsis) 736 

This species must be removed from the Sudan list; the skins listed 
from Imatong by Cave and Macdonald have been re-identified as 
immature Scaly-breasted Illadopsis. 

433. Turdoides leucopygius White-rumped Babbler 728 
R NBR 

The race omoensis is fairly common on the Boma Hills, frequenting 
thick bushes and woodland at higher elevation. 

434. Turdoides plebejus Brown Babbler 723 
R BR (1. 11. 12) 

The race cinereus is fairly common in any broadleaved tree savanna 
southwest of Didinga - Lado - Rumbek - Aweil. The nominate race 
could occur north of Kodok. 

435. Turdoides rubiginosus Rufous Chatterer 732 
R BR (1, 2, 8, 9, 12) 

The nominate race is common in dry savanna where it moves around in 
noisy parties. Recorded north to Jongolei and Boma and west to Aweil. 

436. Turdoides tenebrosus Dusky Babbler 727 
R NBR 

Uncommon to rare, frequenting well-wooded hilly districts. Recorded 
from Boma, Jebel Lado, Kajo Kaji, Mt. Baginzi, Li Rangu and Boro 
River. 

Family CAMPEPHAGIDAE Cuckoo Shrikes 

437. Campephaga flava Black Cuckoo Shrike 1081 
LM NBR 

Uncommon and silent, frequenting forests, gallery forests and better 
woodland along the southern border, mainly at higher altitudes in 
January /February and September/October. Movements need clarification 

438. Campephaga phoenicea Red-shouldered Cuckoo Shrike 1083 
R? LM BR (6) 

Fairly common from December to April, but otherwise uncommon 
frequenting better wooded savanna, mainly along the southern border 
but with records north to Wau and the Sobat River. More information 
is needed about movements and relationship to the Black Cuckoo Shrike 

439. Campephaga quiscalina Purple-throated Cuckoo Shrike 1084 
R? BR (4, 5) 

The race martini is fairly common and probably resident on Imatong 
in forest and secondary growth from 1600 to 2600m. Reported also 
from the Aloma Plateau and less certainly from Didinga Mts. 

440. Coracina caesia Grey Cuckoo Shrike 1068 
R? BR (8) 

The race pura is very common in the dry season on the Imatong, 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts, inhabiting forest, forest edge and 
cultivation from 1600 to 2500m. 



60 



141. Coracina pectoralis White-breasted Cuckoo Shrike 1085 
R? LM BR (2, 3) 

Fairly common in better wooded savanna with tall trees southeast of 
Didinga - Rumbek - Wedweil, and also on the Boma Plateau. Possibly 
only a breeding migrant; recorded January - March and once September. 

Family PYCNONOTIDAE Bulbuls 

142. Andropadus curvirostris Cameroon Sombre Greenbul 774 
R BR (1, 8, 10) 

The nominate race is a common forest resident up to 1600m on Imatong 
and in the gallery forests in Zande. Occasionally wanders to 2000m 
at Gilo in November/December. 

143. Andropadus gracilirostris Slender-billed Greenbul 771 
R BR (8) 

The race congensis is a rather uncommon bird of forest canopy, 
occurring from Imatong to the Aloma Plateau and Zande up to 1600m. 

144. Andropadus latirostris Yellow-whiskered Greenbul 776 
R BR (1, 3, 5 - ; 7) 

A common resident of forests up to 2700m from Didinga to Zande, but 
not recorded from Aza Forest. There is a distinct movement on Imatong 
where birds descend to lower altitude in April/May after breeding. 
Lowland birds west of the Nile breed in the rainy season. 

145. Andropadus virens Little Greenbul 775 
R . BR (9, 10) 

The race holochlorus is a common resident of bowl and gallery forests 
west of the Nile at Aloma Plateau, Bengengai and Zande. 

146. Baeopogon indicator Honeyguide Greenbul 751 
R NBR 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident of lowland and gallery 

P forests along the southern border, reported from Imatong, the Aloma 
Plateau, Aza Forest and Bengengai. Usually confined to high tree tops, 

147. Bleda eximia Green-tailed Bristlebill 747 
R NBR 

The race ugandae is fairly common, frequenting thick undergrowth in 
gallery and bowl forests at Bengengai. 

148. Bleda syndactula Bristle-bill 746 
R BR (1, 3, 6, 8, 10) 

The race woosnami is a common resident in lowland forest undergrowth 
on Imatong, the Aloma .Plateau and at Bengengai. 

49. Chlorocichla flavicollis Yellow-throated Leaf love 749 
R BR (9) 

The race soror is a fairly common resident of green woodland along 
the Zaire border from Yei to Zande, showing a preference for Mango 
trees. 

50. Chlorocichla laetissima Joyful Greenbul 770 
R BR (3, 10) 

A fairly common though rather local resident of forest, forest edge 
and secondary growth on Imatong from 1000 - 2000m. 



61 



451. Chlorocichla simplex Simple Greenbul W 694 
R? NBR 

A secretive species of dense lowland forest known only from Bengengai 
(Traylor & Archer 1982). 

452. Criniger calurus Red-tailed Greenbul 745 
R NBR 

The race emini is known only from Bengengai (Traylor & Archer 1982) , 
but is probably an uncommon resident of thick forest undergrowth 
elsewhere in Zande. 

453. Nicator chloris Nicator 1148 
R BR (7, 8) 

The nominate race is a common resident of lowland bowl and gallery 
forests, recorded from Imatong, the Aloma Plateau, Yambio and Bengen- 
gai. 

454. Phyllastrephus albigularis White-throated Greenbul 761 
R BR (6 - 8) 

A common resident of lowland forest undergrowth up to about 1200m, 
at Imatong, Aza Forest and Bengengai. Not yet recorded from the 
Aloma Plateau. 

455. Phyllastrephus haumanni Toro Olive Greenbul 760 
R BR(5) 

The race hypochloris appears to be a fairly common forest resident 

up to 1600m on the southern side of Imatong and on the Aloma Plateau. 

456. Phyllastrephus placidus Olive Mountain Greenbul 758 

(treated as separate from P. fischeri) 
R BR (1 - 3, 12) 

The race sucosus is a common resident of forested ravines and second- 
ary growth from 1400 to 2000m on the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga 
Mts. 

457. Phyllastrephus scandens Leaf love 750 
R BR (10) 

The race orientalis is a fairly uncommon resident in better woodland 
and gallery forests along the Zaire border from the Aloma Plateau and 
Yei to Zande. 

458. Phyllastrephus strepitans Northern Brownbul 754 
R? BR (1, 2) 

Uncommon, probably resident, frequenting thickets in wooded savanna 
and arid scrub country in the southeast from Juba and Lado to the 
Ethiopian border. 

459. Pycnonotus barbatus Common Bulbul 744 
R BR (4 - 6) 

The race shoanus is a common resident in any type of habitat along 
the Ethiopian border. The other white-vented race arsinoe reaches 
South Sudan around Renk. Between Malakal and Renk and on the Jebel 
Marra the yellow and the white-vented forms occur together without 
interbreeding. 

460. Pycnonotus tricolor Yellow-vented Bulbul 742 
R BR (1, 4, 8 - 10) 

A common resident in most types of habitat, although uncommon in the 



62 



Sudd, and replaced by the White-vented Bulbul along the Ethiopian 
border. North of Malakal both species are found together. 

Family TURDIDAE Thrushes, Robins etc. 

461. Alethe diademata Fire-crested Alethe 901 
R NBR 

The race woosnami is fairly common in gallery forests and forest edge 
at Bengengai. 

462. Alethe poliocephala Brown-chested Alethe 903 
R BR (1 - 3) 

The race giloensis is a common resident in Imatong up to 2500m. 
Lowland birds move to higher altitude in the dry season. 

463. Cercomela familiaris Red-tailed Chat 871 
R BR (1) 

An uncommon and very local resident on rocky hills with open woodland. 
The nominate race is recorded from Boro River, from Wau to Tambura 
and from Boya Hills, while Boma birds are assigned to omoensis . 

Cercomela scotocerea Brown-tailed Rock Chat 870 

The race turkana should occur in the arid rocky bushland of the 
Ilemi Triangle. 

464. Cercotrichas galactotes Rufous Bush Chat 934 
PM LM? NBR 

The nominate race is an uncommon winter visitor to dry Acacia shrub 
and open woodland as far south as Malakal. 

465. Cercotrichas leucophrys White-browed Scrub Robin 910/911 
R? LM NBR (12) 

The white-winged race leucoptera is a breeding resident in dry Acacia 
shrub country in the southeast. In the dry season some wander west 
to Lado where they meet the red-backed race zambesiana. The latter 
is recorded from Lado (Sept.), Raffile (Sept.), Yei (Nov.), and Kajo 
Ka j i . 

Cercotrichas podobe Black Bush Robin 916 

Should occur in dry Acacia shrub around Renk. 

466. Cichladusa guttata Spotted Morning Thrush 909 
R BR (4) 

The nominate race is a common resident in thick dry bushland along 
the Nile, east of it north to the Sobat River, and rarely west to Wau. 

467. Cossypha albicapilla White-crowned Robin Chat 891 
R NBR 

The race omoensis is a fairly common resident in better wooded savanna 
and green bushes on Boma Hills. 

468. Cossypha caffra Robin Chat 893 
R - BR (1,3) 

The race iolaema occurs as a common resident of secondary growth and 
forest above 1600m on Imatong, and more rarely on the Dongotona and 
Didinga Mts. 



63 



469 . Cossypha cyanocampter Blue-shouldered Robin Chat 889 
R BR (10) 

The race bartteloti is a rather uncommon resident on Imatong frequent- 
ing thick damp forest undergrowth at Gilo, Upper Talanga and Lotti . 

470. Cossypha heuglini White-browed Robin Chat 884 
R BR (3) 

The nominate race is a common resident in well wooded savanna south 
of the Sobat and Bahr-el-Arab Rivers. 

471. Cossypha natalensis Red-capped Robin Chat 890 
LM? AM BR (1, 2, 3) 

The race garguensis is seasonally common in lowland forests from 
Imatong to Bengengai , arriving at the beginning of March, breeding 
in the rainy season and leaving about October. Birds from Didinga 
and Boma represent a different population which probably stays from 
November to May and breeds in January /February . 

472. Cossypha niveicapilla Snowy-headed Robin Chat 892 
R? LM? BR (3, 7) 

A fairly common but local species of forest edge and dense vegetation 
near streams. Recorded southwest of Torit - Lado - Wau - Kafia Kingi. 

473. Cossypha semirufa, Ruppell's Robin Chat 885 
R? LM? NBR 

The nominate race has only once been recorded, in thick damp scrub at 
Boma in November (C & MacD 1955) . 

474. Dryocichloides poliopterus Grey-winged Ground Robin 887 
R? LM? NBR 

The nominate race is a fairly common but very local bird of thick 
forest undergrowth near water up to 1800m. Possibly only a non- 
breeding visitor to Imatong and the Aloma Plateau from July to 
October. 

475. Luscinia luscinia Sprosser 992 
PMP 

A little noticed Palaearctic autumn passage migrant east of the Nile. 
Recorded only once, in dense Acacia thicket east of Torit in November 
(pers . obs. ) . 

476. Luscinia megarhynchos Nightingale 921 
PM 

The nominate race is an uncommon Palaearctic visitor from November to 
early April, frequenting thickets in better wooded savanna and winter- 
ing south of Boro River - Tonj - Lado - Kapoeta. 

Luscinia suecica Bluethroat 919 

Could occur in thickets near water along the northern boundary. 

477. Monticola rufocinerea Little Rock Thrush 853 
LM? NBR 

The nominate race has been recorded from the Imatong and Didinga Mts. 
between November and March, from open slopes with scattered trees at 
about 2000m. There are no recent records. 



64 



478. Monticola saxatilis Rock Thrush 850 
PMW PMP? 

An uncommon Palaearctic winter visitor to rocky hills in open savanna 
from December to March, mainly south of Boma - Amadi - Wau - Boro 
River. Even though there is a marked autumn movement in North Sudan 
from September to November, passage is not noticed in the South. 

Monticola solltarius Blue Rock Thrush 851 

This Palaearctic species is to be expected in the arid rocky country 
round Renk. 

479. Myrmecocichla nigra Sooty Chat 880 
R? LM NBR 

Uncommon in open bushed tree savanna from Wau to Tambura in August/ 
September and from Maridi to Kajo Kaji and Opari in July, September, 
December and March/April. 

480. Oenanthe bottae Red-breasted Wheatear 867 
R? LM AM? NBR 

The race heuglini is seasonally very common on open short grass plains, 
and very partial to burnt grass patches. Movements are not clear. 
All records are from east of the Nile. Occurrence in the east and 
northeast is from December to February and probably involves North 
Sudan breeders, but May /June records from the extreme southeast could 
involve a population moving south to Uganda. 

481. Oenanthe deserti Desert Wheatear 857 
PMW 

The nominate race is . a regular Palaearctic winter visitor in December/ 
January to open arid country south to Renk. 

482.. Oenanthe hispanica Black-eared Wheatear 858 

PMW 

The race melanoleuca is a fairly common winter visitor to semi-arid 
open grassland and bushland south to Malakal from December to 
February; once recorded from Lado in December. 

483. Oenanthe isabellina Isabelline Wheatear 855 

PMW 

A common Palaearctic winter visitor, mainly east of the Nile, where 
it tends to frequent drier open grassland habitat than the Northern 
Wheatear. No distinct passage is noticeable. 

t. Oenanthe oenanthe Northern Wheatear 854 

PMW PMP? 

The most common Palaearctic wheatear, wintering throughout in suitable 
open grassland and bush habitat from September to the beginning of 
April (mainly November -March). Passage, though expected, is not 
noticeable. The nominate race and libanotica occur, the latter 
probably more restricted to the North Sudan. 

>. Oenanthe pleschanka Pied Wheatear 859 

PMW PMP? 

The nominate race is an uncommon Palaearctic winter visitor to the 
semi-arid southeast in open rocky grassland. Recorded from Lado and 
Torit in December, Kapoeta in December and January and along the Kenya 
border in November, December and January. 



65 



486. Pentholaea albifrons White-fronted Black Chat 874 
R? LM NBR 

The race clericalis is an uncommon dry season visitor to open grassy 
woodland from November to March, recorded from Yei to Torit and from 
Lado to Kajo Kaji. 

487. Phoenicurus phoenicurus Redstart 917 
PMW 

The nominate race is a common Palaearctic winter visitor throughout in 
any type of woodland, from October to early April. The white-winged 
samamisicus has been collected near Wau in January and at Yei in 
November . 

488. Pogonocichla stellata White-starred Forest Robin 915 
R NBR 

The race pallidiflava is a common resident on Imatong, but uncommon on 
the Dongotona and Didinga Mts . It frequents forest above 2000m. 

489. Saxicola rubetra Whinchat 883 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic passage migrant throughout from October to 
December and in March/early April in any open grassy habitat. 
Some regularly winter along the southern border south of 6°N. 

490. Saxicola torquata Stonechat 882 
R r PMW? BR (4) 

The race albofasciata is a common resident on the Imatong, Dongotona 
and Didinga Mts., frequenting open grassland above 1800m. Palaearcti( 
winter visitors (variegatus) could occur in the extreme north. 

491. Sheppardia aeguatorialis Equatorial Akalat 898 
R BR (1, 4, 11) 
The race acholiensis is a common resident of primary forest undergrpwtl 
on Imatong above 1800m, breeding in the dry season. 

492. Stiphrornis erythrothorax Forest Robin 900 
R? NBR 

The race xanthogaster is recorded from Bengengai (Traylor & Archer 
1982) . It appears to be an uncommon resident of forest undergrowth, 

493. Stizorhina fraseri Rufous Thrush 810 
R? NBR 

The race vulpina is an apparently uncommon species of gallery forest, 
where it perches on branches overhanging rivers . Recorded only from 
the Aloma Plateau and Bengengai (Cave & MacDonald 1955) . 

494. Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris Cliff Chat 876, 87E 
R NBR 

A rather uncommon and local species of rocky hills and cliffs. 
The race subrufipennis has been recorded from Boma, Jebel Kasangor, 
Jebel Lado and Kajo Kaji, while coronatus has its southern limits at 
Boro River . 



66 



495. Turdus abyssinicus Olive Thrush 841 
R BR (1 - 4) 

The nominate race is a common resident on Imatong, frequenting forest, 
forest edge and secondary growth above 1600 m. Also reported from the 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts . 

496. Turdus fischeri Spotted Ground Thrush 846 
R? NBR 

A single example of a newly described race maxis was netted on Imatong 
in November 1979 in the Lotti primary lowland forest (Nikolaus 1982a) . 

497. Turdus pelios African Thrush 840 
R BR (1 - 3) 

A common resident in low altitude woodland throughout. Two races 
occur: pelios north of about Tambura - shambe - Baro River and 
centralis south of this line. 

498. Turdus piaggiae Abyssinian Ground Thrush 845 
R BR (7) 

An uncommon resident near damp forest streams at higher altitudes. 
The nominate race is recorded from Boma, and hadii from the Imatong 
and Dongotona Mts . 

Family SYLVIIDAE Warblers 

499. Acrocephalus arundinaceus Great Reed Warbler 943 
PMP 

A rare Palaearctic passage migrant; only twice recorded, both birds in 
early April at Gilo (pers. obs.). Probably overflies, at least in 
autumn, as it is fairly common in North Sudan during September /October. 

500. Acrocephalus baeticatus African Reed Warbler 946 
R? LM? NBR 

The race cinnamomeus is rare but widely distributed in any kind of 
tall grass and reeds. Recorded from Wau (February), Juba (January), 
Lado and Bahr-el-Zeraf . These could be non-breeding visitors from 
Jebel Marra. 

501. Acrocephalus gracilirostris Lesser Swamp Warbler 957 
R NBR 

The race jacksoni is uncommon in reeds and tall grass over water; 
sometimes also in papyrus. Recorded along the Nile from Malakal to 
Juba. 

502. Acrocephalus griseldis Basra Reed Warbler 943 
PMP 

A rare Palaearctic autumn passage migrant, caught once in late August 
at Juba in tall reed along the Nile (Nikolaus 1979a) . 

Acrocephalus palustris Marsh Warbler 945 

Not recorded, but it should occur along the Ethiopian border as an 
autumn passage migrant. 

503. Acrocephalus rufescens Greater Swamp Warbler 955 
R NBR 

The race niloticus is a common resident in the papyrus vegetation of 
the Sudd, less common in reeds over water. Reported from Maridi, Juba 
and near Torit. 



67 



504. Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Sedge Warbler 947 
PMW PMP 

There are very few records of this Palaearctic migrant, from reedbeds 
along the Nile at Lado and Juba (October, November, January, April) 
and from dense bush vegetation beside water at Gilo (January, March, 
September) . It is perhaps more common in the reed and sedge vegetation 
of the Sudd than available records indicate. 

505. Acrocephalus scirpaceus Reed Warbler 944 
PMW PMP 

Little recorded, but probably not uncommon as a Palaearctic winter 
visitor and autumn passage migrant to reeds, tall grass and Acacia 
bushland. All available records are from the Nile valley and east of 
it from October to March. Most are assignable to the race fuscus, but 
nominate birds also occur. 

506. Apalis cinerea Grey Apalis 973 
R BR (2, 7) 

The nominate race is common on the Didinga, Dongotona and Imatong Mts. , 
mainly on forest edges above 1800m, favouring large Acacias. 

507. Apalis flavida Yellow-breasted Apalis 979/980 
R NBR 

An uncommon species represented by two races : malensis in the dry 
stony acacia grassland of the extreme southeast, and caniceps in low 
bushy grassland at Tambura and Mbili near Wau. 

508. Apalis jacksoni Black-throated Apalis 982 
R NBR 

The nominate race is uncommon on the Didinga and Imatong Mts. above 
1900m, frequenting the tops of large forest trees, with a marked 
preference for Albizia . 

509. Apalis pulchra Black-collared Apalis 977 
R BR (1, 3, 4, ?1 - 12) 

The nominate race is very common on Imatong in dense thickets above 

1800 m. 

510. Apalis rufogularis Buff-throated Apalis 972 
R? NBR 

The race nigricens is apparently rare, and known only from the Aloma 
Plateau and Bengengai, where it frequents large forest trees. 

511. Bathmocercus rufus Black-faced Rufous Warbler 1053 
R BR (7) 

The race vulpinus is fairly common on Imatong above 1800m and on the 
Aloma Plateau, frequenting dense thickets and forest undergrowth 
bordering rivers . 

512. Bradypterus alfredi Bamboo Warbler 951 
R NBR 

Uncommon and recorded only at Gilo in grassy secondary growth. Quite 
often noticed after a large fire had damaged most of the low vegetation, 
in the area. (Nikolaus 1982) . 
\ 



68 



513. Bradypterus baboecala Little Rush Warbler 948 
R NBR 

An apparently local and uncommon resident in reedbeds, papyrus and 
tall floating grass in the Sudd. The race sudanensis is described 
from Lake No; otherwise there is but a single record from Juba. 

514. Bradypterus cinnamomeus Cinnamon Bracken Warbler 952 
R BR (5) 

The race cavei is a very common resident in dense forest shrubbery 
and thick secondary growth on the Imatong and Dongotona Mts. above 
1800 m. 

515. Camaroptera brevicaudata Grey-backed Camaroptera 1011 
R BR (2, 7, 10, 11) 

The race abbessinica is very common throughout in any type of thick 
bush vegetation. North of Renk it is replaced by the nominate race. 

516. Camaroptera chloronota Olive-green Camaroptera 1010 
R BR (2, 3) 

The race toroensis is known only from Bengengai, where it frequents 
forest undergrowth and is possibly not uncommon (Tray lor & Archer 1982) . 

Camaroptera superciliaris Yellow-browed Camaroptera 1012 

A lowland forest species; a record from Kombo in the extreme southeast 
needs confirmation. 

517. Camaroptera simplex Grey Wren Warbler 968 
R? NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common in the extreme southeast, frequenting 
thicker bushes in dry Acacia grassland. 

518. Chloropeta natalensis Yellow Warbler 805 
R BR (6) 

The race massaica is a rare resident of tall grass savanna, often near 
water; recorded from the Imatong foothills west to Maridi. 

519. Chloropeta similis Mountain Yellow Warbler 806 
R BR (4, 10) 

A common resident on Imatong in forest undergrowth, forest edge and 
secondary growth above 1800m; rare on the Didinga and Donga tona Mts. 

CISTICOLAS : All the Cisticola species seem to perform local movements to 
some extent in response to seasonal changes in habitat. They all breed 
during the rainy season. 

520. cisticola aberrans Rock-loving Cisticola 1027 
R NBR 

The race petrophila is restricted to open rocky grassland at high 
altitude on the Imatong and Dongotona Mts. where it is fairly common. 

521. Cisticola ayresii Wing-snapping Cisticola 1019 
R BR (4 - 6) 

The race imatong is a fairly common resident in the Imatong Mts. on 
meadows above 2000 m. 

522. Cisticola bodessa Boran Cisticola 1024a 
R NBR 

Fairly common in tall grass savanna on the Boma Hills, where it is 
often conspicuous singing from tall trees. These birds are best 
assigned to the race caffaensis . 

69 



523. Cisticola brachyptera Sif fling Cisticola 1037 
R BR (7) 

Rather uncommon in dense tall grassland with scattered trees. The 
nominate race is recorded from the southern border, Boro River, Chak- 
Chak, Wau and Tonga; birds from Boma are nearer to the race sedlitzi. 

524. Cisticola cantans Singing Cisticola 1031 
R? LM? BR (7) 

The race concolor is fairly common but rather local in better wooded 
thick grassland, often near rivers. Distributed from Gogrial south 
to Tambura and east to Didinga. Found breeding at Yei where the race 
belli has also been recorded. 

525. Cisticola chiniana Rattling Cisticola 1024 
R BR (6, 9) 

The race fricki is fairly common, frequenting Acacia grassland south- 
east of Boma-Bor-Yei . A record from Wau needs confirmation. 

526. Cisticola cinereola Ashy Cisticola 1042 
R? LM? BR (12) 

Only once recorded, possibly as a breeding visitor to Acacia short 
grassland on the Kenya border (Nikolaus 1979) . 

527. Cisticola erythrops Red-faced Cisticola 1032 
R? LM NBR 

Locally common in better wooded or bushed thick grassland, often near 
rivers. The race pyrhomitra is reported from Boma, Maridi (February) 
and Gilo (July to April) . The race sylvia is recorded from Tambura 
(February) , Yambio (May) , Maridi (January) and Tapari River (February) 
The status of the two races, and the relationship to the Singing 
Cisticola, where both species occur, is not clear. 

528. Cisticola eximia Black -backed Cisticola 1021 
The nominate race is recorded rather locally in short open grassland 
from Aweil, Ayod region, Boma Plains and Kajo Kaji. 

529. Cisticola galactotes Winding Cisticola 1033 
R BR (6 - 9) 

The race marginata is very common along the Nile and in the Sudd, 
frequenting papyrus and reeds and always associated with water bound 
vegetation. Other records are from Tarangole (Koss River) , Yambio 
(Sue River) , Wau (Sue River) , Raga (Lol River) and Bahr-el-Arab. 

530. Cisticola juncidis Zitting Cisticola 1016 
" R? LM? BR (5 - 10, 12) 

The race uropygialis is common in short grassland along the Nile and 
east of it, but uncommon to the west. 

531. Cisticola lateralis Whistling Cisticola 102 
R? BR (7) 

The race antinorii is fairly common in well wooded grassland and low 
altitude forest edge from Didinga to Benengai and the Boro-Riki River 
The type was described from Jur River. 

532. Cisticola nana Tiny Cisticola 104 
R? NBR 
Recorded only once, in dry thornbush savanna along the Kenya border 

(Macdonald & Cave 1948) . 



70 



533. Cisticola natalensis Croaking Cisticola 1036 
R? LM? NBR 

Locally- common in open tall grassland with scattered bushes. Three 
races occur: argentea along the Ethiopian border south of Boma and 
strangei west of about 33 E. North of Lake No and the Sobat the 
latter is replaced by the race tonga. 

534. Cisticola robusta Stout Cisticola 1035 
R? NBR 

There is a single record of the race nuchalis from tall grass savanna 
at Shambe (Macdonald & Cave 1948) . The status of this species needs 
clarification. 

535. Cisticola ruficeps Red-pate Cisticola 1043 
R BR (7 - 10) 

A common species along the Nile, frequenting thornbush savanna and 
sometimes open wooded grassland; uncommon elsewhere. The race 
mohgalla is replaced by scotoptera north of Lake No and the Sobat 
River . 

536. Cisticola troglodytes Foxy Cisticola 1038 
R BR (4, 7, 9) 

Common in grass savanna, and often associated with ironstone country. 
The nominate race occurs throughout except along the Ethiopian border 
where it is replaced by ferruginea . 

537. Drymocichla incana Red-winged Grey Warbler 994 
- R NBR 

Rare, and only recorded from Kajo Kaji, Yei, Maridi, Lado, Wau and the 
Boro River, mainly in thick bushes fringing rivers in open grass 
savanna . 

8. Eminia lepida Grey-capped Warbler 993 
R - -- BR (11) 
Common on the Ima tongs in dense damp undergrowth above 1600m. 

9 . Eremomela badiceps Brown-crowned Eremomela 1007 
R NBR 

The nominate race (latukae rejected by Traylor 1982) is fairly common 
on the Imatongs, frequenting large lowland forest trees. 

540. Eremomela icteropygialis Yellow-bellied Eremomela 1003 
R NBR 

Uncommon in dry savanna scrub. The race griseoflava occurs southeast 
of Juba - Lado, while alexanderi is reported from Renk and Wau. 

541. Eremomela pusilla Green-backed Eremomela 1005 
R BR (2, 3) 

The race canescens occurs fairly commonly throughout in any type of 
savanna at low altitude 

2 Heliolais erythroptera Red-winged Warbler 1050 

R NBR 

The race jodoptera is a very local bird of open bushed grassland 
recorded along the southern border from Li Rangu to Torit and from 
Wau. 



71 



Hippolais icterina Icterine Warbler 935 

Not yet recorded, but expected as a Palaearctic migrant in open 
woodland. 

Hippolais languida Upcher's Warbler 931 

Possibly a rare Palaearctic autumn passage migrant, with a single 
record from Mongalla (Cave & Macdonald 1955) which could not be 
traced. Confirmation is needed. 

543. Hippolais pallida Olivaceous Warbler 938 
PMW PMP 

The Palaearctic race eleica is a locally abundant winter visitor from 
August to March in Acacia savanna along the Nile and east of it, but 
uncommon to rare in the west. The nominate race from Egypt winters 
south to Malakal from October to February. 

544. Hylia prasina Green Hylia 1281 
R BR (1) 

The nominate race is fairly common in thick lowland forest undergrowth 
on Imatong, the Aloma Plateau and at Bengengai 

545. Locustella luscinioides Savi ' s Warbler 939 
PMW 

A seldom recorded but perhaps not uncommon Palaearctic winter visitor 
to the Sudd south to Juba, frequenting tall grass, reeds and bushes 
near water. The nominate race has been found, but fusca could also 
occur. 

546. Macrosphenus flavicans Yellow Longbill 1014 
R BR (3) 

The race hypochondriacus has been collected at Bengengai (Traylor & 
Archer 1982) . A species of dense forest undergrowth and creepers. 

547. Parisoma lugens Brown Parisoma 939 
R? LM? BR (7) 

The race jacksoni is rare, recorded only from the Imatong and Didinga 
Mts. , where it has been found in large Acacia trees in well wooded 
grassland up to 2000 m. 

548. Phyllolais pulchella Buff -bellied Warbler 99! 
R? NBR 

Fairly common along the Nile and to the east, frequenting tall trees 
in Acacia savanna. Elsewhere reported only from Maridi and Gorgrial. 

549. Phylloscopus bonelli Bonelli's Warbler 96. 
PMW 

The race orientalis winters rarely south to Malakal in dry Acacia bust 
land. 

550. Phylloscopus collybita Chiff chaff 96( 
PMW 

The race abietinus is a fairly common Palaearctic winter visitor from 
December to March to the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts. and the 
Boma Hills, frequenting forest edges and bushes, mainly above 1800m. 

551. Phylloscopus sibilatrix wood Warbler 96 
PMW PMP? 

An apparently rare Palaearctic visitor from late September to early 
April to forest edges near the southern border. Recorded only from 
Bengengai and Imatong (M.A. Traylor in litt.). 

72 



Phylloscopus trochilus Willow Warbler 959 

PMP PMW? 

There are surprisingly few records of this Palaearctic migrant, all 
from Wau and the region between Juba and Lake Turkana between Sept- 
ember and January. There is no evidence of wintering or of spring 
passage. Birds are referable to the race acredula. 

Phylloscopus umbrovirens Brown Woodland Warbler 964 

R BR (4, 6, 8) 

A fairly common resident of highland forest and forest edge above 
1800m on the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts. 

Prinia leucopogon White-chinned Prinia 1048 

R BR (4, ?1 - 12) 

The race reichenowi is a common resident on the Imatong in forest and 
secondary growth. Also recorded from Bengengai. 

Prinia somalica Pale Prinia 1046 

R BR(12) 

The race erlangeri is a fairly common resident in the dry Acacia scrub 
country of the extreme southeast, east of Kapoeta. 

Prinia sub f lava Tawny-flanked Prinia 1045 

R BR (7 - 10) 

The nominate race is common in any kind of savanna except north of 
Lake No and the Sobat River where it is replaced by deserti and in the 
arid extreme southeast where the species is replaced by P. somalica. 

Schoenicola platyura Fan- tailed Warbler 969 

R? NBR 

A species of tall moist grassland. There are only four records of the 
race alexinae , from Gazelle River (type) , Nagishot/Didinga, Lotti 
Forest and Gilo. 

Sphenoeacus mentalis Moustached Warbler "" 1051 

R? NBR 

The nominate race is locally common in tall grass savanna southwest of 
Raga - Wau - Bor - Imatong and at Boma near the Ethiopian border. 

Spiloptila rufifrons Red-fronted Warbler 987 

R? BR (12) 

Recorded only from the extreme southeast in dry Acacia scrub. Birds 
are probably referable to the race smithii . 

Sylvia atricapilla Blackcap 926 

PMW PMP? 

The nominate race is a very common Palaearctic winter visitor to the 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts., frequenting green bush vegetation 
and forest above 1600m from October to April. Not recorded elsewhere 
even though it should occur on passage. Birds ringed at Imatong have 
been recovered in Sweden and Lebanon. ' 

Sylvia borin Garden Warbler 925 

PMP 

A regular Palaearctic passage migrant from September to November in 

wooded savanna near Wau and in the Yei - Lado - Didinga - Imatong 

area. On Imatong it occurs in secondary vegetation around Gilo from 

September to December and also from late February to the beginning of 

May. 

73 



562. Sylvia communis Whitethroat 92 
PMW PMP 

A rather uncommon Palaearctic winter visitor and passage migrant to 
dry woodland, favouring thorny vegetation. Recorded from late August 
to early April. Wintering birds are all of the nominate race, while 
many passage birds are icterops or volgensis . 

563. Sylvia curruca Lesser Whitethroat 92 
PMW 

The nominate race winters commonly from late September to late Feb- 
ruary/early March in thornbush vegetation north of 10° N; occasionally 
recorded south to Juba. 

564. Sylvia hortensis Orphean Warbler 92 
PMW 

The race crassirostris is a rare Palaearctic visitor to Acacia thickej 
south to Melut between September and February. The main wintering ar 
is in North Sudan. 

565. Sylvia nisoria Barred Warbler 93! 
?PMP 

Four very fat birds were netted in mid February in Acacia woodland 
near Melut. The only other record is of a bird in late October near , 
Wau (M. Rae) . This species is a common passsage migrant in North Sucj 

566. Sylvietta brachyura Crombec 95 
R BR (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 12) 
Common throughout in any kind of savanna. The nominate race occurs a 
low altitude throughout except in the arid southeast where it is 
replaced by leucopsis . Birds ranging to 2400m on Imatong would be 
dilutior if this race proves to be valid. 

567. Sylvietta virens Green Crombec IOC 
R BR (10) 

The race baraka is a rather uncommon resident of lowland forest 
thickets, from Bengengai and Lotti Forest/Imatong. 

568. Sylvietta whytii Red-faced Crombec 95 
R BR (2, 12) 

The race abayensis is rather uncommon and confined to the extreme 
southeast where it frequents better bush vegetation in acacia short 
grass savanna. 

Family MUSCICAPIDAE Flycatchers 
Sub-family Muscicapinae 

569. Artomyias fuliginosa Sooty Flycatcher 8C 
R? NBR 

Recorded only twice, from the Aloma Plateau (Macdonald & Cave 1948). 

570. Bradornis microrhynchus Grey Flycatcher 793/7S 
R? LM BR (2, 12) 

The race neumanni is uncommon in dry bush savanna west to Juba and 
Lado and north to Jebel Kasangor. All records are from the dry 
season. 



74 



Bradornis pallidus Pale Flycatcher 792 

R? LM? BR (1) 

The nominate race is uncommon but occurs, perhaps as a non-breeding dry 
season visitor, in the open wooded savanna west of Malakal - Ayod - 
Juba. The only rainy season records are from the Zaire border region. 
Two other races occur: parvus on the Boma Hills and murinus on the 
Didinga Mts . above 1500 m. 

Empidornis semipartitus Silverbird 801 

R NBR 

A common resident in Acacia savanna and semi-arid bushland northeast 
of a line from Kajo Kaji to Aweil. 

Ficedula albicollis Collared Flycatcher 779/780 

PMP PMW? 

A rare and little recorded Palaearctic visitor to better wooded 
savanna. The race semitorquata has been collected at Kajo Kaji 
(February) , Taufika (April) and recently by Tray lor at Gilo and 
Bengengai (March) . 

Melaenornis chocolatina White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher 796 

R BR (2, 3) 

The race fischeri is a common resident on the Imatong, Dongtona and 
Didinga Mts., frequenting forest edge and secondary growth above 1600m 

Melaenornis edoliodes Black Flycatcher 798 

R BR (4) 

The race lugubris is a fairly common resident southwest of Boro River - 
Gogrial - Lado - Didinga Mts . , where it inhabits well wooded Savanna 
and gardens . Also recorded from Boma 

Muscicapa adusta Dusky Flycatcher 781 

R BR (1, 2) 

The race pumila is a very common resident on the Imatong, Dongotona 
and Didinga Mts., frequenting open highland forest and secondary 
growth above 1800 m. 

Muscicapa aquatica Swamp Flycatcher 782 

R BR (4) 

A species of reed, bush and papyrus vegetation near swamps and rivers, 
where it is locally common. The race infulata occurs along the Nile 
south of Malakal, while the West African nominate race is recorded 
from Boro River, Wau and Raffile. 

Muscicapa caerulescens Ashy Flycatcher 785 

R NBR 

The race brevicaudata is an uncommon resident in the foothill forests 
of Imatong. Also recorded from Zande. 

Muscicapa comitata Dusky Blue Flycatcher 803 

R? NBR 

The race stuhlmanni has been recorded only once, from gallery forest 
on the Aloma Plateau (Macdonald & Cave 1948) . 

Muscicapa gambagae Gambaga Flycatcher 778 

R? LM? NBR 

Recorded from open savanna at Lado in January (Nikolaus) , Mvolo in 
March (B.M.) . 



75 



581. Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher 778 
PMP 

A common Palaearctic passage migrant from mid-October to early 
December in open woodland or wooded savanna. A few pass northwards 
between mid-March and mid- April. Two races occur: the nominate race 
passes mainly west of the Nile while neumanni is predominant east of i 

582. Myioparus plumbeus Lead-coloured Flycatcher 788 
R BR (12) 

The nominate race is a fairly common savanna resident southwest of 
Gogrial - Bor - Didinga. 

Sub-family Platysteirinae 

583. Batis minor Black -headed Batis 82C 
R NBR 

The race erlangeri is fairly common throughout, especially in well- 
wooded savanna and large Acacia trees along the Nile. 

584. Batis molitor Chinspot Batis 81' 
R NBR 

Apparently confined to the Didinga Mts., where it is a fairly common 
resident of secondary growth and well wooded grassland. 

585. Batis orientalis Grey-headed Batis 8 If 
R. NBR 
Fairly common in open wooded grassland. Two races occur: the nomina 
along the Ethiopian border with records confined to the Torit - Imato. 
- Didinga area, and chadensis west of the Nile, extending eastwards t 
Lado and Renk. 

586. Batis perkeo Pygmy Batis 81 
R? NBR 
Recorded only from the Natoporuputh Hills where it is not uncommon in 
dry Acacia scrub (Nikolaus 1973) . 

587. Bias musicus Black and White Flycatcher 8 J 
R? NBR 

The nominate race is known only from Bengengai where it is a rare 
forest species (Macdonald & Cave 1948; Tray lor) . 

588. Hyliota flavigaster Yellow-bellied Flycatcher 8 
R NBR 

The nominate race is a fairly common resident, frequenting tree tops 
in better wooded savanna southwest of Gogrial - Yei - Imatong and 
around Boma. 

589. Megabyas flammulata Shrike Flycatcher 8 
R? NBR 

The race aequatorialis is known only from Bengengai, where it appear; 
to be an uncommon resident in both primary and secondary forests. 

590. Platysteira blissetti Jameson's Wattle-eye £ 
R BR (1) 

The race jamesoni is a rare resident of dense vegetation in bowl 
forests at Lotti (Imatong), the Aloma Plateau and Bengengai. 



76 



591. Platysteira castanea Chestnut Wattle-eye 824 
R BR (6, 8) 

The nominate race is known as a common resident in thick gallery 
forest at Bengengai and in lowland forest at Imatong. 

592. Platysteira cyanea Wattle-eye 822 
R BR (1, 2, 4, 7, 12) 

The race nyanzae is a fairly common resident southwest of Didinga - 
Lado - Wau - Boro River, frequenting gallery forests and forest 
clearings up to 2000m. The race aethiopica occurs on the Boma Hills. 

Sub-family Monarchinae 

593. Erranornis longicauda Blue Flycatcher 827 
R BR (3) 

The race teresita is a common but local resident of gallery forest and 
forest edges up to 2000m, recorded southwest of Imatong - Rumbek - 
Boro River. 

594. Terpsiphone viridis Paradise Flycatcher 832 
R? LM AM NBR 

The race ferreti (incl. speciosa) is common throughout in any woodland 
and forest up to 2200m. Status needs further clarification: in the 
forests along the southern border there are records for most months, 
but elsewhere it occurs from September to April, probably migrating to 
breed in the North Sudan during the rainy season. The southern African 
migratory race plumbeiceps was once collected in July on the Aloma 
Plateau (Nikolaus 1982) . 

K Trochocercus nigromitratus Dusky Crested Flycatcher 831 

R? NBR 

Recorded only from Bengengai in March (Tray lor & Archer 1982) . 
A species of forest undergrowth and secondary bush. 

'96. Trochocercus nitens Blue-headed Crested Flycatcher 830 

R? NBR? 

The nominate race is known only from Bengengai where a single bird was 
collected in March (Traylor & Archer 1982) . A bird of forest under- 
growth . 

Family MOTACILLIDAE Wagtails, Pipits, Longclaws 

'. Anthus campestris Tawny Pipit 702 

PMW 

The nominate race is a rare Palaearctic winter visitor, recorded in 

January from Juba (pers. observ.). 

t. Anthus cervinus Red- throated Pipit 713 

PMW 

A common Palaearctic winter visitor on wet short grassland throughout, 
from late October to March. Most numerous along the Nile and in the 
Sudd region. 

». Anthus leucophrys Plain-backed Pipit 704 

R? LM? NBR 

The race zenkeri is uncommon, frequenting savanna with scattered trees 
and bushes in better wooded parts of the south-west; recorded from 
Didinga, the Kajo Kaji - Lado - Yei area and from Wau to Raffili. 
The race omoensis may occur along the Ethiopian border. 



77 



600. Anthus novaeseelandiae Richard's Pipit 706 
V? LM? NBR 

A rare visitor, known only from Kajo Kaji (Brown 1931) and Mongalla. 
These birds have been assigned to cinnamomeus . 

601. Anthus similis Long-billed Pipit 703 
V? LM? NBR 

The race hararensis has only once been recorded, in dry rocky country 
in the Natoporoputh Hills in the extreme southeast (Macdonald & Cave 
1948) . 

602. Anthus trivialis Tree Pipit 708 
PMW PMP 

The nominate race is a common Palaearctic passage migrant throughout, 
and occasionally winters in well wooded savanna, forest edge and 
cultivation up to 3000m; occasionally in late September and October, 
but mainly from November to April. 

603. Macrongx croceus Yellow- throated Longclaw 716 
R? LM? BR (10) 

The nominate race is locally common along the southern border from 
Imatong to Tambura, and in the Sudd, frequenting damper grassland and 
grassy swamps. Recorded from Juba, Lado, Meshra er Req and Lake No. 

604. Motacilla aguimp African Pied Wagtail 691 
R LM? NBR 

The race vidua is a locally common resident of streams, swamps and 
waterholes at low altitude , not recorded from the arid extreme south- 
east, the Sudd or the region northwest of Wau. 

605. Motacilla alba White Wagtail 690 
PMW 

The nominate race is an uncommon but regular winter visitor in small 
numbers, mainly from November to early March. Commoner towards the 
north; this is a common wintering species in the North Sudan. 

606. Motacilla cinerea Grey Wagtail 694 
PMW PMP 

A common Palaearctic visitor from September to April on forest edges 
and along rivers up to 3000m on the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga 
Mts. Small numbers of passage birds occur throughout, mainly from 
late August to November and from late February to April . One ringed 
as a pullus in the USSR (43°45'N, 40°00'E) was controlled at Gilo in 
November . 

Motacilla clara Mountain Wagtail 692 

There is one record of 'white wagtails' in July on forest roads in the 
Ima tongs (Imatong Tea Project) . This could well refer to the occur- 
rence of Mountain Wagtails. 

607. Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail 695, 697-700 
PMW PMP 

A common winter visitor and passage migrant up to 2000m throughout, 
frequenting savanna, swamps, cultivation and towns, often in 
association with cattle. Two main races occur: the blue-headed flava 
is common throughout from late September to March, whilst the black- 
headed feldegg is almost always associated with swamps and wet grass- 
land, arriving in mid October. Other types have been reported: 



78 



yellow-headed lutea at Maridi in March, grey-headed thunbergi on 
spring passage at Gilo in April, black -headed superciliaris at Wau in 
October and blue-headed birds with dark ear coverts (? dombrowskii ) 
near Malakal in February. 

S08. Tmetothylacus tenellus Golden Pipit 715 

R? LM? NBR 

Uncommon and probably only a dry season visitor to the extreme south- 
east frequenting arid grassy Acacia scrub. Recorded from Kapoeta, 
Jebel Kathangor and Boma. 

Family MALACONOTIDAE Bush Shrikes 

609. Dryoscopus angolensis Pink-footed Puffback 1132 
R BR (6) 

The race nandensis is an uncommon resident of the Imatong primary 
forests, ranging up to at least 2400m. It could occur on the Aloma 
Plateau. 

610. Dryoscopus gambensis Puffback 1131 
R LM? BR (2, 12) 

The race Malzacii is fairly common, frequenting large trees in better 
wooded savanna southwest of Didinga - Lado - Tonj - Wedweil. It is 
regular on Didinga up to 2000m, and presumed wanderers have been 
observed at Gilo/lmatong in December. The race erythreae occurs in 
similar habitat along the Ethiopian border. 

611. Laniarius barbarus Black -headed Gonolek 1119 
R BR (6, 7) 

The race erythrogaster is a common resident in any type of wooded 
savanna throughout except the forest regions of Zande. Birds in the 
papyrus swamps of the Sudd are assigned to this species, but this 
needs confirmation for in East African papyrus swamps it is replaced 
by L. mufumbiri . 

612. Laniarius ferrugineus Tropical Boubou 1125 
R BR (6 - 9) 

The race major is a common resident in well wooded savanna southwest 
of Didinga - Rumbek - Wedweil , while aethiopicus is found along the 
Ethiopian border . 

6 13. Laniarius funebris Slate-coloured Boubou ±121 
R BR (10) 

A fairly common resident in the arid country southeast of Torit, 
preferring thick bushland and Acacia scrub. 

» 14 . Laniarius leucorhynchus Sooty Boubou 1122 

R NBR 

Recorded only from dense secondary forest at Bengengai. Probably a 
rare resident elsewhere in Zande. 

. Laniarius luehderi Luhder's Bush Shrike 1127 

R BR (1 - 3, 4, 11 - 12) 

The nominate race is an uncommon resident on the Aloma Plateau, but 
is common on Imatong up to 2800m, frequenting thick forest under- 
growth and dense vegetation in forest clearings. 



79 



616. Malaconotus blanchoti Grey-headed Bush Shrike 1144 
R? LM? NBR 

The race catharoxanthus is rather uncommon but widely distributed in 
better wooded savanna southwest of Didinga - Lado - Rumbek - Raga. 

617. Malaconotus sulfureopectus Sulphur -breasted Bush Shrike 1138 
R? LM? BR (8, 9) 

The race similis is fairly common in better wooded savanna along the 
southern border. It is also reported from Boma, Wau, Boro and Riki 
River. There might be some northward movement during the rains. 

618. Nilaus afer Northern Brubru 1098 
R BR (4, 5, 11) 

Fairly common and probably resident throughout in open tree savanna, 
bushland and arid Acacia savanna. The race minor replaces the nominate 
race in the arid extreme southeast. 

619. Rhodophoneus cruentus Rosy-patched Shrike 1147 
R NBR 

Uncommon and only known from arid open low thorn-scrub country near 
the Kenya border. 

620. Tchagra australis Brown-headed Tchagra 1134 j 
R LM? BR (12) 

The race emini is locally common in secondary growth, forest edge and 
gallery forest up to 2200m along the southern border. Recorded from 
the Didinga and Imatong Mts . , Maridi and Bengengai , and north to at 
least the Tapari River near Amadi. 

621. Tchagra jamesi Three-streaked Tchagra 1135 1 
R BR (12) 

The nominate race is confined to the arid extreme southeast where it 
is fairly common in thick scrub. 

622. Tchagra minuta Black-capped Tchagra 1136 \ 
R BR (10) 

The nominate race is an uncommon resident of tall wet grassland, 
forest edge and swamps, including papyrus. Recorded along the 
southern border from Imatong to Zande and from Boma, Bor, Wau, Malakal 
and Lake No. 

623. Tchagra senegala Black -headed Tchagra 11331 
R BR (5, 9) 

Common at low altitude in any kind of woodland with thickets and 
bushes, including gardens and forest edges. Four races occur: 
remigialis in the extreme north round Renk, habessinica east of the 
Nile south of Malakal, notha west of the Nile and armena in the 
extreme southeast from Kapoeta to the Natoporuputh Hills. 

Family LANIIDAE Shrikes 

624. Corvinella corvina Yellow-billed Shrike 1117 
R NBR 

The race affinis is a fairly common resident in better wooded savanna 
and bushland southwest of Didinga - Lado - Rumbek - Wedweil; usually 
in small parties . The status and validity of the races togoensis , 
caliginosa and chapini need clarification. 



80 



625. Lanius collaris Fiscal 1104 
R BR (5, 6) 

Fairly common resident in better wooded savanna and on forest edges 
up to at least 2000m. The race humeralis occurs east of the Nile 
on Imatong, Dongotona, Didinga and Boma and smithii west of the Nile 
from Kajo Kaji to Zande. 

626. Lanius collurio Red-backed Shrike 1112 
PMP PMW? 

An uncommon Palaearctic autumn passage migrant recorded mainly along 
the southern border below 2000m from September to December. There 
are no spring records. A male collected in full moult at Bahr-el- 
Ghazal in January is exceptional. 

627. Lanius dorsalis Taita Fiscal 1107 
Fairly common and probably resident in open Acacia savanna in the 
extreme southeast. 

628. Lanius excubitor Greater Grey Shrike 1100 
LM? PMW NBR 

A common winter visitor in the open semi-arid region around Renk, 
frequenting single bushes and trees from late September to February. 
Three races representing Palaearctic and North Sudan breeders could 
occur: leucopygos , aucheri and pallidirostris . 

629. Lanius excubitorius Grey-backed Fiscal 1102 
R LM? BR (4, 5, 9) 

The nominate race is common throughout except in the thicker woodlands 
and forests in the southwest. It is mainly resident and frequents 
grassland with scattered bushes and trees. 

630. Lanius gubernator Emin's Shrike 1113 
R BR (3, 4) 

An uncommon resident in open bushed grassland along the southern 
border, known only from the Yei - Kajo Kaji - Aloma Plateau area; 
it could be expected elsewhere between Didinga and Maridi. 

631. Lanius isabellinus Red-tailed Shrike 1114 
PMW PMP 

The race speculigerus is a common Palaearctic winter visitor through- 
out from November to February, associated mainly with swamp edges and 
wet grassland. The race phoenicuroides could occur. 

632. Lanius minor Lesser Grey Shrike 1103 
PMP 

An uncommon to rare Palaearctic passage migrant from late August to 
October, with a single record from Juba in November. Many must over- 
fly since the species is common in late August/September in North 
Sudan. There appear to be no spring records. 

633. Lanius nubicus Nubian Shrike 1109 
PM 

A common Palaearctic winter visitor to semi-arid bushland in the 
extreme north around Renk from late September to February. Also 
recorded from Magoth in the extreme southeast in February and from 
Wau in late March (M. Rae) . 



81 



634. Lanius senator Woodchat Shrike 1-115 
PMW 

The race niloticus is a common Palaearctic winter visitor throughout 
except in the arid extreme southeast and the forests along the southern 
border, occurs from mid-September to late April or the beginning of May- 
preferring open grassland with scattered bushes, especially wetter 
habitats near swamps. The nominate race may also occur, particularly 
in the west. 

635. Lanius somalicus Somali Fiscal 1106 
R? NBR 

Known only from the four records in the extreme southeast given by 
Hall & Moreau (1970). 

Family PRIONOPIDAE Helmet Shrikes 

636. Eurocephalus rueppelli White-crowned Shrike 1097 
R LM? BR (8, 12) 

A common resident in dry thornbush savanna in the southeast, mainly 
east of Torit. Regular dry season observations around Juba - Lado 
might refer to wanderers. 

637. Prionops plumata Helmet Shrike 1090, 1091 
R? BR (4) 

Fairly common at low altitude throughout except in the Sudd, occurring 
in small parties in wooded savanna, woodland' and forest edge. The 
racial status is not well understood: curly-crested specimens from 
Soma, Imatong and Didinga are assigned to cristatus , others west of 
Torit to cocinnatus; straight crested birds from the Natoporoputh 
Hills are assigned to vinaceigularis . 

Family STURNIDAE Starlings, Oxpeckers 

638. Cinnyricinclus leucogaster Violet-backed Starling 1184 
LM AM? NBR 

The nominate race is seasonally common at Juba and southwest of 
Didinga - Lado - Rumbek - Wedweil, occurring in any type of tree 
savanna from January to April and in September/October: verreauxi 
has been recorded from Didinga in March and Mongalla in August. 

639. Cinnyricinclus sharpii Sharpe's Starling 1185 
R? LM BR (2, 4) 

Fairly common in forests above 1800m on the Imatong, Dongotona and 
Didinga Mts., though possibly absent during the rainy season. 

640. Creatophora cinerea Wattled Starling 1182 
LM AM? NBR 

Fairly common in short grass bushland southeast of Lado - Boma from 
August to March, and sporadically also at Rumbek and Wau. 

641. Lamprotornis caudatus Long- tailed Glossy Starling 1195 
R? LM? NBR 

Common in open tree savanna west of the Sue River (Wau) , and more 
rarely east to Tonj . 



82 






542. Lamprotornis chalcurus Bronze-tailed Glossy Starling 1189 
LM NBR 

The race emini is fairly common in the dry season in better wooded 
savanna southwest of Torit - Rumbek - Gogrial - Wedweil. At least 
some move north to breed. 

543. Lamprotornis chalybaeus Blue-eared Glossy Starling 1188 
LM NBR 

The race cyaniventris occurs in better wooded savanna but is 
uncommon; possibly a non-breeding visitor from North Sudan. Status 
is unclear because of confusion in the field with Lesser Blue-eared 
and Bronze-tailed Glossy Starlings. 

644. Lamprotornis chloropterus Lesser Blue-eared Glossy Starling 1190 
R? LM NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common throughout in better wooded 
savanna, but mainly southwest of Didinga - Bor - Gogrial and along 
the Ethiopian border. 

645. Lamprotornis purpureus Purple Glossy Starling 1191 
R? LM BR (4) 

The race amethystinus is fairly common in better wooded savanna west 
of the Nile. 

646. Lamprotornis purpuropterus Ruppell's Long-tailed Glossy Starling 1196 
R LM? BR (1, 2) 

Common throughout in low altitude tree savanna except west of Aweil - 
Raffile. 

647. Lamprotornis splendidus Splendid Glossy Starling 1192 
R? NBR 

The nominate race is uncommon in more mature woodland and forest 
edges along the Zaire border; also recorded from Boma. 

648. Onychognathus fulgidus Chestnut-winged Starling 1200 
R? NBR 

The race hartlaubii is recorded only from Bengengai forest (Hall & 
Moreau 1970) . 

649. Onychognathus morio Red-winged Starling 1203 
R? NBR 

Uncommon and local, frequenting cliffs and rocky hills in better 
wooded savanna. Recorded from Mt. Baginzi to Didinga and on the 
Boma Hills. 

650. Onychognathus walleri Waller's Chestnut- winged Starling 1201 
R NBR 

The race elgonensis is common on the Imatong and Dongotona Mts. in 
forest above 1800 m. 

651. Poeoptera stuhlmanni Stuhlmann's Starling 1209 
R BR (4) 

Known only from Imatong, where it is common in forests above 1900m 
and nests in dead trees. 

652. Spreo shelleyi Shelley's Starling 1215 
R? LM NBR 

At least seasonally common from Kapoeta to Lake Turkana, frequenting 
arid Acacia bushland and showing a preference for Salvadora trees. 



83 



653. Spreo superbus Superb Starling 1216 
R? LM NBR 

Common from Torit to Jebel Kasangor and Lake Turkana in semi-arid 
open short grass savanna; moves west to Juba and Lado between August 
and January. 

Sub-family Buphaginae 

654. Buphagus africanus Yellow-billed Oxpecker 1217 
R? NBR 

The nominate race associates fairly commonly with cattle and game 
southwest of Didinga - Lado - Gogrial - Wedweil, and could occur 
throughout . 

655. Buphagus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Oxpecker 1218 
R? NBR 

Fairly common with cattle and game southeast of Juba - Boma. 

Family NECTARINIIDAE Sunbirds 

656. Anthreptes collaris Collared Sunbird 1271 
R BR (1, 4, 10, 11) 

The race garguensis is common on the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga 
Mts. in forest and secondary growth up to 2400m. West of the Nile 
the race hypodilus is recorded from Maridi , Yambio, Bengengai and 
Tambura in similar habitat. 

657. Anthreptes longuemarei Violet-backed Sunbird 1274 
R? BR (2) 

The nominate race is rather uncommon in tree savanna, forest edge and 
bushland west of Kajo Kaji - Lado - Ayod and north to the Bahr-el-Arab, 

Anthreptes metallicus Eastern Pygmy Sunbird 1236 

R? LM NBR 

May occur north of Malakal. Common in the dry Acacia savanna of 
northeast Sudan. 

658. Anthreptes orientalis Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird 1274 
R? BR (1, 3, 11, 12) 

Common in dry savanna and arid thornbush country southeast of Juba - 
Lado - Boma. 

659. Anthreptes platurus Pygmy Sunbird 1236 
R? LM? BR (2) 

Occurs in dry woodland and Acacia savanna throughout. Locally common 
except in the northeast and west. 

660. Anthreptes rectirostris Green Sunbird 1272 
R? LM? NBR 

The race tephrolaema is known only from the lowland forests of 
Imatong where it is seasonally fairly common in the forest canopy. 

661. Nectarinia amethystina Amethyst Sunbird 1261 
R? LM? BR (5) 

The race doggetti is fairly common in grassy woodland and bushes on 
the Didinga Mts. above 1600m, and has once been recorded from 
Imatong . 



84 



>2. Nectarinia chloropygia Olive-bellied Sunbird 1257 

R? NBR 

The race orphogaster is rare, and recorded only from the Aloma 
Plateau, Yambio and Bengengai (Nikolaus, Cave & Macdonald 1955). 

663. Nectarinia coccinigaster Splendid Sunbird 1239 
R? NBR 

Uncommon, and recorded only from the Yei and Yambio areas; a bird of 
thickets and forest edge bushes. 

664. Nectarinia cuprea Copper Sunbird 1238 
R? BR (7, 8) 

The nominate race occurs in open bushy places in wooded savanna south 
of Imatong - Lado - Gogrial, but is uncommon. 

665. Nectarinia erythroceria Red-chested Sunbird 1232 
R? NBR 

Uncommon and confined to vegetation near water along the Nile, north 
to Lake No and Malakal. 

666. Nectarinia famosa Malachite Sunbird 1227 
R? BR (5) 

The race cupreonitens is rather uncommon and known only from Imatong, 
where it frequents grassy patches near forest above 1800m. 

Nectarinia habessinica Shining Sunbird 1240 

The race turkanae may well occur in the extreme southeast, but is 
not yet recorded. 

Nectarinia hunteri Hunter's Sunbird 1264 

Could occur in the arid extreme southeast, but not yet recorded. 

667. Nectarinia mariquensis Mariqua Sunbird 1245 
R? BR (12) 

The race osiris is uncommon and recorded only from the Didinga Mts. 
where it frequents better wooded savanna and forest edge up to 2000m. 

668. Nectarinia olivacea Olive Sunbird 1269 
R BR (6 - 8) 

The race ragazzii is common up to 3000 m in any type of forest from 
Bengengai to Didinga and on the Boma Hills. 

669. Nectarinia osea Northern Orange-tufted Sunbird 1248 
R? LM? AM? NBR 

The race decor sei has been collected from bushy grassland in the area 
between Kajo Kaji and Bengengai - Tambura. Records are few and 
confined to the period October to March. 

670. Nectarinia preussi Northern Double-collared Sunbird 1256 
R BR (1, 10 - 12) 

The race kikuyuensis is a very common resident above 1800m on the 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts., frequenting forest and secondary 
growth . 

671. Nectarinia pulchella Beautiful Sunbird 12 33 
R? BR (3, 10, 11) 
The nominate race is common . throughout in any kind of savanna; 
absent only from the forests along the southern border. 



85 



672. Nectar inia rubesce-ns Green-throated Sunbird 1262 
R? BR (9, 10) 

The nominate race is uncommon in low altitude forest and forest edge 
from Bengengai to Imatong. 

673. Nectarinia seimundii Little Green Sunbird 1277 
R? LM? AM? BR (3) 

The race traylori was found to be very common at Talanga forest in 
March, possibly as a non-breeding visitor (Traylor & Archer 1982) . 
A specimen was also collected in breeding condition at Bengengai in 
March (Traylor in litt.). A lowland forest species whose status is 
unclear. 

674. Nectarinia senegalensis Scarlet-chested Sunbird 1263 
R? BR (4, 8, 9) 

Common in any type of tree and bush savanna. The race acite occurs 
throughout west of Didinga - Malakal, whilst the Ethiopian race 
cruentata is common around Boma. 

675. Nectarinia tacazze Tacazze Sunbird 1229 
R? LM BR (1) 

The race jacksoni occurs above 1800m on the Imatong, Dongotona and 
Didinga Mts. Always very common at flowering Lobelia, but its where- 
abouts during periods when this attraction is absent are not clear. 

676. Nectarinia venusta Variable Sunbird 1251 
R? LM? BR (1, 11, 12) 

Common in open grassy bushland, forest edge and secondary growth at 
higher altitude. The race falkensteini occurs on the Imatong, 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts., and exceptionally in Acacia scrub along 
the Kenya border (December) , while the race fazugliensis has been 
reported from Boma. 

677. Nectarinia verticalis Green-headed Sunbird 1266 
R? NBR 

The race viridisplendens is common up to 3000 m in better wooded 
savanna and forests from Didinga to Bengengai and north to Tambura, 
Wau, Boro and Riki River. 

Family ZOSTEROPIDAE White-eyes 

678. Zosterops poliogaster Montane White-eye 1221 
R BR (1 - 4, 11, 12) 

The race gerhardi is endemic to the Imatong Mts., where it is very 
common in forest and secondary growth above 1800m. 

679. Zosterops senegalensis Yellow White-eye 1219 
R? LM BR (2, 3, 7, 9, 12) 

The nominate race is common throughout in any kind of wooded savanna 
at low altitude. 



86 



- Family PLOCEIDAE Weavers etc. 
Sub-family Ploceinae 

0. Amblyospiza albifrons Grosbeak Weaver 1358 
R? LM BR (11) 

The race melanota is fairly common in well-wooded savanna, and on 
forest edges at Aza and on Imatong up to 2000 m. Breeds in tall 
grass and papyrus along the Nile to Shambe. 

1. Anaplectes rubriceps Red-headed Weaver 1359 
R? BR (8) 

The race leuconotus is rather uncommon, but widely distributed in 
well-wooded savanna and open bushland throughout. 

2. Anomalospiza imberbis Parasitic Weaver 1405 
R? LM? AM? NBR 

The nominate race has been recorded sporadically in moist grassland 
between Lado and Kajo Kaji, presumably as a non-breeding visitor. 

3. Euplectes afer Ye How- crowned Bishop 1369 
R? LM BR (9) 

The race ladoensis is very common in swamps and wet grassland in the 
Sudd. Records from similar habitat at Yambio, Aweil and the Diofo 
River could refer to the nominate race. 

Euplectes albonotatus White-winged Widowbird 1373 

The race eques may occur in tall bushed grassland along the Uganda 
border . 

684. Euplectes ardens Red-naped Widowbird 1375, 1376 

(including the Red-collared Widowbird) 
R? NBR 

The race concolor is fairly common in patches of tall grass in low 
altitude wooded savanna along the southern border from Imatong to 
Tambura. The race laticauda occurs in similar habitat but at higher 
altitude on the Boma Hills. 

5. Euplectes axillaris Fan- tailed Widowbird 1370 
R? LM? BR (8) 

The race phoeniceus is fairly common in tall, moist bushed grassland, 
mainly along the Nile, Sobat and Bahr-el-Ghazal west to Aweil. 

6. Euplectes capensis Yellow Bishop 1367 
R? LM BR (8 - 10) 

The race crassirostris is seasonally common up to 2000 m on the 
Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts., frequenting forest edges and 
open grassland. Also recorded from the Aloma Plateau and Maridi. 

17. Euplectes franciscanus Red Bishop 1363 
R LM BR (9 - 11) 

Locally abundant in the Sudd, and common in tall grassland elsewhere, 
except in the forested region along the Zaire border. 

18. Euplectes gierowii Black Bishop 1366 
R? NBR 

The race ansorgei is uncommon in well-wooded tall grassland at low 
altitude along the southern border, and also on Boma. 



87 



689. Euplectes hordeaceus Black -winged Red Bishop 1365 
R LM BR (8 - 10) 

The race craspedopterus is very common throughout in bush and tree 
savanna, sometimes abundant in ranker vegetation during the dry 
season. 

690. Euplectes macrourus Yellow-mantled Widowbird 1372 
R? LM? BR (8 - 10) 

The nominate race is common in well-wooded tall grassland in the 
southwest. There is one old record from Torit. 

691. Malimbus nitens Blue-billed Malimbe 1357A 
R? NBR 

Recorded only from forest undergrowth at Bengengai (Traylor & Archer 
1982) . 

Vi 

692. Malimbus rubricollis Red-headed Malimbe 1356 
R? NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common in the lowland forests of Imatong 
up to 1600m. Rare elsewhere but recorded from the Aloma Plateau 
and Bengengai . 

693. Ploceus badius Cinnamon Weaver 1328 
R LM BR (8, 9) 

The race axillaris is endemic to the Sudd region where it is abundant 
in tall grassland near water. In the dry season wanderers have been 
recorded from Torit, Maridi. and Wau and regularly north to Renk. 

694. Ploceus baglafecht Baglafecht Weaver 1323 

(separated from Emin's Weaver following van den Elzen & Konig (1983) 
R? BR (3) 

The race eremodius is uncommon, but recorded from better wooded 
savanna at Yei, Maridi, Li Rangu and Tambura. Nominate birds have 
been recorded from Boma. 

695. Ploceus bicolor Dark-backed Weaver 1335 
R NBR 

The race mentalis occurs uncommonly in forest undergrowth in the 
Imatong foothills. 

696. Ploceus emini Emin's Weaver 134 

(separated from Baglafecht Weaver following van den Elzen & Konig (1983 
R? LM? BR (6 - 8, 11) 

The nominate race is common up to 2400m on the Imatong, Dongotona and 
Didinga Mts., frequenting forest clearings and cultivation. Also 
recorded from Yambio in March and from the Ethiopian border south of 
Boma. 

697. Ploceus galbula Ruppell's Weaver 1329J 
LM V? NBR 

Only recorded along the Kenya border in November 1979, when it was 
fairly common in dry Acacia woodland (Nikolaus) . 

698. Ploceus heuglini Heuglin's Masked Weaver 1318 
R? BR (8, 9) 

Uncommon and rather local in open woodland southwest of Wau - Rumbek - 
Lado - Kajo Kaji, nesting in small colonies in Mango trees. 



88 






699. Ploceus insignis Brown-capped Weaver 1351 
R " BR (3, 10) 

Fairly common above 1800m in forest and forest edge on the Imatong, 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts. 

700. Ploceus intermedins Masked Weaver 1319 
LM? BR (4, 9, 12) 

The nominate race is mainly a rainy season visitor to semi-arid 
Acacia savanna southeast of Juba - Boma, locally fairly common. 

701. Ploceus jacksoni Golden-backed Weaver 1326 
R? NBR 

Apparently rare, ■ and confined to moist localities in lowland grass 
savanna around Imatong and Didinga. K 

702. Ploceus luteolus Little Weaver ^ 1324 
R? BR (5 j 8, 9) 

The nominate race is common throughout in any kind of lowland savanna 
woodland. The race kavirondensis may occur along the Uganda border. 

703. Ploceus melanocephalus Yellow-backed Weaver 1325 
R? LM? BR (8) 

The race fischeri is fairly common in the southwest, north to Wau and 
east to Imatong. It frequents tall grassland near water, especially 
during the breeding season. 

704. Ploceus melanogaster Black-billed Weaver 1346 
R BR (1 - 3, 11, 12) 

The race stephanophorus is common above 1600m on the Imatong, 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts., frequenting forest undergrowth and 
cultivation. 

705. Ploceus nigerrimus Black Weaver 1344 
R? BR (8, 11) 

The nominate race is fairly common in thick tree savanna and forest 
edge with open grassland along the Zaire border from Tambura to the 
Aloma Plateau. 

706. Ploceus nigricollis Black-necked Weaver 1336 
R? LM? NBR 

The nominate race is uncommon, and recorded only from savanna country 
and forest edge at Li Rangu and Bengengai. 

707. Ploceus ocularis Spectacled Weaver 1337 
LM? NBR 

The race crocatus is uncommon in low altitude wooded savanna and 
forest edge along the southern border from Imatong to Tambura, as 
well as at Lado and the Boro River. All records are from the dry 
season. 

708. Ploceus rubiginosus Chestnut Weaver 1327 
LM? AM? NBR 

The nominate race is rather uncommon but occurs regularly in November/ 
December in the Acacia savanna of the extreme southeast; probably a 
non-breeding visitor. 

709. Ploceus superciliosus Compact Weaver 1356 
R? LM? NBR 

Recorded only from Boma, Imatong, Tambura and Bengengai where it is 
Locally common at low altitude in well wooded grassland 

89 



710. Ploceus taeniopterus Northern Masked Weaver 1316 
R LM? BR (6 - 11) 

The nominate race is locally abundant along the Nile and Sobat Rivers 
in tall grassland, nesting in large "sunt" Acacia trees. Breeding is 
also reported along the Zaire border. 

711. Ploceus velatus Vitelline Masked Weaver 1321 
R LM? BR (6-9, 11) 

Common in wooded grassland and cultivation at low altitude. The race 
vitellinus occurs north of 10° N (Melut) , while uluensis ranges north 
to Boma, Shambe and Aweil and west to Wau and Tambura. 

712. Quelea cardinalis Cardinal Quelea 1362 
R? LM? NBR 

The nominate race is uncommon in tall grass savanna under 2000 m in 
the Maridi - Lado - Imatong" area. 

713. Quelea erythrops Red-headed Quelea 1361 
R? LM BR (7, 8) 

Uncommon in moist grass patches in better wooded savanna. Recorded 
from Juba to Tambura and north to Wau, probably only as a breeding 
visitor. A wanderer was collected in dry Acacia savanna east of 
Kapoeta in December. 

714. Quelea quelea Red-billed Quelea 1360 
R LM BR (9) 

The race aethiopica is seasonally abundant along the Nile south to the] 
Sudd, especially in the dry season, but uncommon to rare elsewhere. 
Breeding colonies have appeared with the recent establishment of large 
irrigation schemes such as that at Bor. This species is much more 
common in the dry bush savanna of North Sudan. A bird ringed in 
Ethiopia north of Lake Turkana (5°05'N, 35° 57' E) was recovered after 
two years 387km west, near Torit. 

Sub-family Bubalornithinae 

715. Bubalornis albirostris White-billed Buffalo Weaver 1284 
R? LM NBR 

Fairly common in the Acacia savanna around Kapoeta and Jebel Kasangor. 
It is not clear whether these are just non-breeding visitors, as the 
few birds which occur further west around Juba appear to be. 

716. Bubalornis niger Red-billed Buffalo Weaver 1285 
R? BR (8, 9) 

The race intermedius is fairly common in dry Acacia savanna east of 
Kapoeta. 

717. Dinemellia dinemellia White-headed Buffalo Weaver 1286 
R LM BR (8, 9, 12) 

The nominate race is common in semi-arid Acacia savanna east of Torit; 
wanderers move west to Juba and Lado in the dry season. There are 
three old skins from the Li Rangu/Yambio area, collected in April and 
October, showing clean white feathering unlike that of other Sudan 
specimens (Woodman - Khartoum Museum) . 



90 



Sub-family Plocepasserinae 

718. Plocepasser mahali White-browed Sparrow Weaver 1287 
R BR (2, 6, 9, 10, 12) 

The race melanorhynchus is common in dry Acacia savanna southeast of 
Juba, Lado and Jebel Kathangor. 

719. Plocepasser superciliosus Chestnut-crowned Sparrow Weaver 1288 
R BR (7) 

Common in better wooded savanna southwest of Kafia Kingi - Tonj - 
Lado - Didinga, and also along the. Ethiopian border where it is 
recorded from Boma. 

720. Pseudonigrita arnaudi Grey-headed Social Weaver 1291 
R LM? BR (8 - 12) 

The nominate race is locally common in Acacia savanna north to Boma 
and Ayod and west to Lado. 

Sub-family Passerinae 

Passer castanopterus Somali Sparrow 1298 

The race fulgens probably occurs in the arid extreme southeast near 
Lake Turkana. 

721. Passer domesticus House Sparrow 1293 
R BR (1 - 12) 

The race arboreus is common in towns with solid buildings along the 
Nile south to Malakal where it was probably only recently introduced. 

722. Passer eminibey Chestnut Sparrow 1306 
R? LM? BR (8 - 10) 

Uncommon and local in Acacia country from Juba and Lado east to the 
Kenya border; also recorded from Malakal and Meshra er Req. 

723. Passer griseus Grey-headed Sparrow 1300, 1303 
(including Parrot-billed Sparrow) 

R LM? BR (9 - 11) 

The nominate race is very common throughout, except along the 
Ethiopian border, in any kind of tree and bush savanna. The race 
gongonensis is uncommon in the arid extreme southeast where it tends 
to replace the nominate race . 

724. Passer luteus Sudan Golden Sparrow 1304 
LM NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common in the dry season in arid 
savanna around Renk, and occasionally south to the Sobat River. 

725. Passer motitensis Rufous Sparrow 1294 
R? BR (9) 

The race shelleyi is uncommon and recorded only from Lado and Jebel 
Kathangor, in semi-arid Acacia bushland, sometimes near villages. 

726. Petronia dentata Bush Petronia 1309 
R LM? BR (1, 2, 12) 
Common throughout at low altitude in tree and bush savanna. 

727. Petronia pyrgita Ye How- spotted Petronia 1308 
R? NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common in wooded savanna on rocky ground 
in the arid extreme southeast. 



91 



Sub-family Sporopipinae 

728. Sporopipes frontalis Speckle-fronted Weaver 1311 
R? BR (1, 9, 12) 

Common in dry Acacia savanna. The race emini occurs southeast of 
Juba - Lado - Boma, while the nominate race ranges south to Wau 
and Ayod. 

Sub-family Viduinae 

Indigo Birds: Identification of Indigobirds is very difficult: 
information on song and on the bill and foot colour of the live 
bird may be necessary. It is even more difficult to assign the 
right estrildid host for some species, where field observations 
are scanty. 

729. Hypochera camerunensis "Camerunensis" Indigobird 1439 
R? NBR 

Rare, and only reported from well wooded savanna at Li Rangu; possibly 
parasitic on the Black-faced Firefinch Lagonosticta larvata . 

730. Hypochera chalybeata Red-billed Firefinch Indigobird 1435 
R? BR (8, 9) 

The race ultramarina is fairly common in open tree and bush savanna 
and cultivation, recorded from Wau, Gogrial, Yei, Amadi and along the 
Nile from Juba to Renk ; parasitic on the Red-billed Firefinch j. 

Lagonosticta senegala . 

731. Hypochera nigeriae "Nigeriae" Indigobird 1440 
R? NBR 

Rare in open wooded savanna; recorded from Li Rangu, Mongalla and Wau. 1 
Possibly parasitic on the Black-bellied Firefinch Lagonosticta rara . 

732. Hypochera wilsoni Bar-breasted Firefinch Indigobird 1437 
R? BR (9, 10) 

Fairly common in well wooded savanna soutwest of Raffile - Lado - 
Torit; parasitic on the Bar-breasted Firefinch Lagonosticta rufopicta. 



733. Vidua fischeri Straw- tailed Whydah 1443 
R? LM BR (12) 

Seasonally fairly common in semi-arid Acacia savanna east of Torit. 
Mainly parasitic on the Purple Grenadier Uraeginthus ianthinogaster 
but possibly also on the Blue-capped Cordon Bleu Uraeginthus cyano- 
cephalus (Nikolaus 1979) . 

734. Vidua hypocherina Steel-blue Whydah 1442 
R? LM? NBR 

Rare, and known only from arid open Acacia savanna east of Kapoeta 
(Nikolaus 1979) , where it is mainly parasitic on the Black-cheeked 
Waxbill Estrilda erythronotus . 

735. Vidua inter jecta Northern Broad-tailed Paradise Whydah W1386 ^ 
R? LM NBR 

Fairly common in open woodland along the southern border south of 
Tambura, Lado and Torit; parasitic on the Red-winged Pytilia Pytilia 
phoenicoptera . 



92 



'36. Vidua macroura Pin-tailed Whydah 1441 

R? LM BR (8 - 11) 

Common throughout in any kind of grass savanna; some move north during 
the rainy season. Parasitic on Waxbills Estrilda spp. 

37. Vidua orientalis Northern Paradise Whydah 1445 
R? LM NBR 

The nominate race is fairly common in open woodland and bush savanna 
north of Aweil - Malakal. Parasitic on the Green-winged Pytilia 
Pytilia melba (races having red lores) . 

38. Vidua paradisaea Paradise Whydah 1444 
R? LM? BR (9) 

The nominate race is fairly common in open woodland and bush savanna 
southwest of Juba - Lado - Boma, where it is parasitic on the Green- 
winged Pytilia Pytilia melba (races having grey lores) . 

Family ESTRILDIDAE Waxbills etc. 
Sub-family Estrildinae 

39. Amandava subflava Zebra Waxbill 1421 
R? LM? BR (6 - 9) 

The nomina.te race is widespread but uncommon in swamps and tall grass 
savanna near water throughout. 

40. Clytospiza dybowskii Dybowski's Twinspot 1390 
R? BR (10) 

Rare at open grass patches in lowland forests and recorded from 
Bengengai, Li Rangu and Lotti Forest. 

41. Clytospiza monteiri Brown Twinspot 1389 
R BR (9) 

Fairly common in moist thickets west of the Nile, north to Lado, Wau 
and Kafia Kingi. 

42. Cryptospiza Salvador ii Abyssinian Crimson-wing 1399 
R ~ BR (1, 10 - 12) 

Common up to 3000 m in forest undergrowth and clearings on the Imatong 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts. Best regarded as an intergrade between 
kilimensis and the nominate race. 

43. Estrilda astrild Waxbill 1418 
R? LM? NBR 

The race peasei is uncommon in tall grassland along the Nile, Bahr-el- 
Ghazal and Sobat Rivers . 

44. Estrilda erythronotus Black-cheeked Waxbill 1427 
R? NBR 

Rare in open Acacia savanna between Torit and the Kenya border; status 
unknown . 

45. Estrilda melanotis Yellow-bellied Waxbill 1417 
R? LM BR (10, 11) 

The race kilimensis (not quartinia) is common up to 2400m in grass- 
land on the Imatong, Dongotona and Didinga Mts.; seen mainly during 
the dry season. 



93 



746. Estrilda nonnula Black-crowned Waxbill 1425 
R LM? BR (10, 11) 

The nominate race occurs up to 2800m in forest clearings and 
cultivation from Tambura to Didinga. It is very common on the 
Imatong Mts . but uncommon elsewhere 

747. Estrilda paludicola Fawn-breasted Waxbill 1422 
R? BR (7, 8) 

Fairly common in open damp wooded grassland within better wooded 
savanna. The nominate race occurs southwest of Imatong - Lado - 
Rumbek - Wau - Kafia Kingi and ochrogaster. along the Ethiopian 
border from Baro River to Boma. 

748. Estrilda rhodopygia Crimson-rumped Waxbill 1420 
R? NBR 

The race centralis is a rare bird of grass savanna, recorded only from 
Lado, the Aloma Plateau and Didinga; status unknown. 

749. Estrilda troglodytes Black-rumped Waxbill 1419 
R? LM? NBR 

Fairly common in grass savanna with thickets near water, mainly west 
of the Nile. 

750. Lagonosticta larvata Black-faced Firefinch 1416 
R? BR (9) 

Fairly common in better wooded tall grassland. The race nigricollis 
occurs west of the Nile throughout except in the Sudd, while the 
nominate race is restricted to the Boma area. 

751. Lagonosticta rara Black-bellied Firefinch 1426 
R? BR (8 - 11) 

The nominate race is fairly common in better wooded savanna and the 
edge of gallery forest southwest of Didinga - Rumbek - Kafia Kingi. 

752. Lagonosticta rhodopareia Jameson's Firefinch 1411, 1412 
R? LM? BR (12) 

The nominate race is fairly common in open grassland at higher 
altitudes on the Boma Hills and Didinga Mts.' 

753. Lagonosticta rubricata African Firefinch 1411 
R? LM? BR (7) 

Fairly common in tall grass and overgrown cultivation up to 2400m, 
moving to lower altitude for breeding during the breeding season, 
the race hildebrandti occurs east of the Nile from Imatong to the 
Didinga Mts . and the Boma Hills ; congica from the Aloma Plateau to 
Bengengai . 

754. Lagonosticta rufopicta Bar-breasted Firefinch 1414 
R? BR (6 - 10) 

The nominate race is fairly common throughout north to the Bahr-el- 
Arab and Sobat Rivers, frequenting trees and bush savanna and cultiv- 
ation. 

755. Lagonosticta senegala Red-billed Firefinch 141 
R BR (7, 8) 

The race rhodopsis is common in grass savanna and cultivation through- 
out, except in the better wooded savanna and forest area southwest of 
Juba, Rumbek and Wau. It intergrades with ruberrima along the Uganda 
border. 



94 



5. Mandingoa nitidula Green-backed Twinspot 1407 

LM BR (1) 

The race chubbi is a common breeding visitor from November to March, 
Occasionally till May, to thick forest undergrowth and thickets up 
to 2400m on the Imatong, Dongotona and possibly the Didinga Mts. 

7. Nesocharis capistrata Grey-headed Olive-back 1428 

R? NBR 

Apparently uncommon or rare in gallery forests with tall trees. 
Recorded only from Maridi, Wau and Boro River. 

758. Nigrita canicapilla Grey-headed Negrofinch 1386 

R LM? BR (1, 3, 12) 

The race schistacea is fairly common in lowland forests and forest 
clearings up to 2400m on the Imatong Mts.; the race canicapilla 
. was once recorded from Bengengai (Traylor & Archer 1982) . 

■3. Ortygospiza atricollis Quailfinch 1403 

R? LM? NBR 

The nominate race is uncommon in dry or wet short grass swamps. 
Recorded around Kajo Kaji, Juba, Rumbek, Ton j , Aweil and Malakal. 

Ortygospiza locustella Locust Finch 1404 

The race uelensis is recorded along the Zaire border from Bengengai to 
the Aloma Plateau, but not yet on Sudan territory. In this area or 
north of it Chapin suggests breeding during the late rainy season in 
marshy grassland. 

D. Pyrenestes ostrinus Large-billed Seedcracker 1393-1395 

R? NBR 

Uncommon in dense thicket, forest edge and forest undergrowth. All 
three races have been recorded along the Zaire border: frommi from 
Li Rangu, Yei and the Aloma Plateau, rothschildi and nominate from 
Bengengai . 

761. Pytilia afra Orange-winged Pytilia 1409 
R? LM? NBR 

Rare in open wooded savanna, and recorded only from Kajo Kaji, 
Didinga and Rejaf in April (B.M.); status unknown. 

762. Pytilia melba Green-winged Pytilia 1410 
R BR (1, 2, 12) 

Common throughout in any kind of bush and open tree savanna. Four 
races are recognised: criterior north of the Bahr-el-Arab and Sobat 
Rivers, clanceyi south of it to Tambura and Shambe, where it inter- 
grades with belli to the south; soudanensis occurs east of the Nile 
north at least to Boma. 

3. Pytilia phoenicoptera Red-winged Pytilia 1408 
R? NBR 

The nominate race is rather uncommon in open tree savanna with thick 
bushes, recorded from Kajo Kaji and Lado west to Tambura and Wau. 

4. Spermophaga ruficapilla Red-headed Bluebill 1391 
R BR (1, 4) 

The nominate race is fairly common but unobtrusive in thick moist 
forest undergrowth from Bengengai to Imatong up to 2400m. 



95 



765. Uraeginthus bengalus Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu 1431 
R BR (9 - 11) 

The nominate race is common throughout at low altitude in any kind of 
savanna and cultivation except in the arid extreme southeast where it 
is replaced by the Blue-capped Cordon-bleu U. cyanocephalus . 

766. Uraeginthus cyanocephalus Blue-capped Cordon-bleu 1432 
LM BR (12) 

An uncommon breeding visitor, restricted to semi-arid Acacia savanna 
east of Kapoeta (Nikolaus 1973) . 

767. Uraeginthus ianthinogaster Purple Grenadier 1433 
R LM NBR 

Uncommon in Acacia thickets and bush country east of Didinga. In the 
dry season it wanders west to Torit. 

Sub-family Amadinae 

768. Amadina fasciata Cut- throat 1402 
R? LM? NBR (11) 

Uncommon in dry Acacia savanna. The nominate race is probably only a 
wanderer south to Wau and Gogrial; birds southeast of Lado - Jebel 
Kasangor are nearer to alexanderi . 

769. Lonchura bicolor Black and White Mannikin 1380 
LM BR (9, 10) 

The race poensis is a common breeding visitor to the Imatong and 
Didinga Mts., up to 2400m, favouring small grass patches on forest 
edges and cultivation. Moves to low altitude from April to July. 
Once recorded from Maridi in August. 

770. Lonchura cucullata Bronze Mannikin 1379 
R LM BR (7, 9, 11) 

The nominate race is seasonally common in grassland and cultivation up 
to 2000 m southwest of Didinga - Lado - Rumbek and the Bahr-el-Arab. 
Birds from Boma are nearer to scutata. 

111. Lonchura fringilloides Magpie Mannikin 1382 

LM BR (11) 

Fairly common from October to May on the Imatong Mts. in secondary 
growth and grassy forest edge up to 2000m; also recorded from Maridi 
and Bengengai. Status unknown. 

772. Lonchura griseicapilla Grey-headed Silverbill 1384 

LM NBR 

An uncommon dry season visitor in small parties to the dry savanna 
and Acacia bushland between Juba and the Kenya border. 

773 Lonchura malabarica Silverbill 1383 

R? BR (12) 

Uncommon, mainly as a dry season visitor, in semi-arid grassland. 
The race orientalis occurs south of Boma - Lado, ranging west to 
Maridi in the dry season, while cantans is found north of the Bahr- 
el-Arab and Sobat Rivers. 



96 



Family FRINGILLIDAE Buntings, Canaries, Seed-eaters 
Sub-family Emberizinae 

774. Emberiza cabanisi Cabanis * Bunting 1467 
R BR (7) 
The nominate race is uncommon in open bush savanna from Tambura to Yei. 

Emberiza caesis Cretzschmar *s Bunting 1473 

May occur as a Palaearctic winter visitor in arid bush savanna north 
of Melut. 

775. Emberiza flaviventris Golden-breasted Bunting 1469 
R? NBR 

The race kalaharica (caryochroa) frequents open tree savanna along 
the -southern border, with records from Maridi, Yei and Didinga; 
flavigastra should occur north of Melut. 

776. Emberiza forbesi Brown-rumped Bunting 1471 
R BR (3) 

The nominate race is fairly common throughout in open bush and tree 
savanna. 

Emberiza hortulana Ortolan 1472 

Probably occurs as a Palaearctic winter Visitor in green bushland 
round Renk. 

777. Emberiza poliopleura Somali Golden-breasted Bunting 1470 
R? BR (4, 12) 

Uncommon in arid Acacia bush savanna in the extreme southeast. 

778. Emberiza striolata House Bunting 1477 
R? LM V? NBR 

The race saturatior was collected in March 1915 by Butler at Kajo 
Kaji. Frequents arid stony country around Lake Turkana and in 
North Sudan. 

779. Emberiza tahapisi Cinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting 1476 
R LM NBR 

Fairly common and always associated with rocky hills, grass and 
bushes. Three races probably meet: goslingi in the west around 
the Boro/Riki River, nominate along the southern border from Zande 
to Boma, and septemstriata east of the Nile south to the Sobat River. 

Sub-family Carduelinae 

780. Linurgus olivaceus Oriole Finch 1463 
R BR (1, 2, 11) 

The race elgonensis is common in forest and forest clearings above 
1800 m on the Imatong Mts. 

781. Serinus atrogularis Yellow-rumped Seed-eater 1459 
R? NBR 

The race reichenowi is uncommon in dry Acacia savanna southeast of 
Kapoeta. There is one recent August record from Tambura (Nikolaus) . 



97 



782. Serinus canicollis Yellow-crowned Canary 1454 
R BR (11) 

The race flavivertex is rather uncommon above 1800m on the Imatong 
Mts . , favouring Podocarpus trees in highland forest. 

783. Serinus citrinelloides Grey-faced African Citril 1464 
R BR (1 - 3, 10 - 12) 

The nominate race is very common up to 2400m on the Imatong, 
Dongotona and Didinga Mts., moving to lower altitudes in the rainy 
season. A species of forest clearings, secondary growth and 
cultivation. 

784. Serinus dorsostriatus White-bellied Canary 1449 
R? LM? NBR 

There is one record of the race maculicollis , from dry bush savanna 
in the Natoporoputh Hills (Macdonald & Cave 1948) . 

785. Serinus gularis Streaky-headed Seed-eater 1456 
R? LM NBR 

The race elgonensis is uncommon in dry woodland, recorded from Wau 
and from Tambura to Yei between November and March. 

786. Serinus leucopygius White-rumped Seed-eater 1458 
R LM? NBR 

The nominate race is rather uncommon in wooded grassland near water, 
recorded along the Nile from Gogrial, Rumbek and Torit. Extending 
its range with the development of new irrigation schemes. 

787. Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted Canary 1448 
R? LM? BR (9) 

Common in tree and bush savanna. The race barbatus ranges throughout 
west of Didinga - Ayod, while grrotei occurs along the Ethiopian border 

788. Serinus reichardi Stripe-breasted Seed-eater 1456 
R? LM? NBR 

The race striatipectus is uncommon in open tree savanna, recorded 
from Yambio, Yei, Didinga and Boma from November to May. 

789. Serinus striolatus Streaky Seed-eater 1461 
R BR (1) 

The nominate race is very common on the Imatong Mts. in secondary 
scrub, cultivation and forest edge above 1800m. Also recorded from 
the Dongotona Mts. 



98 



GAZETTEER 



Aloma Plateau 

Amadi 

Aweil 

Ayod 

Aza Forest 

Baginzi, Mt. 

Baro River 

Bengengai 

Boma Hills 

Bor 

Boro River 

Didinga Mts. 
Diofo River 
Dongotona Mts . 

Gambela, Ethiopia 
Geigar 
Gilo/Itibol 
Gogrial 

Ilemi Triangle 
Imatong Mts . 

Jongolei 
Juba 

Kafia Kingi 

Kagelu 

Kajo Kaji 

Kaka 

Kapoeta 

Kasangor, Jebel 

Kenya/Sudan Border 

Kinyeti, Mt. 

Kipia 

Kodok 

Kongor 

Kosti 

Lado 

Li Rangu 

Lotti Forest 

Malakal 

Maridi 

Mbili 

Melut 

Meshra er Req 

Mongalla 

Muolo 

Nagishot 
Natoporoputh Hills 



ca. 3°45 , N, 


30°45'E 


1200 m 


5°30'N, 


• 30°22'E 




8°45'N, 


27°24'E 




8°08'N, 


28°22'E 




4°42 , N, 


29°50'E 


700 m 


4°28'N, 


29°01 , E 


1067 m 


ca. 8°30'N, 


33°30'E 




4°49'N, 


27°43'E 




SMO'U, 


34°30'E 


1500 m 


6°13'N, 


31°33'E 


420 m 


8°27»N, 


24°47'E ca. 800 m 


4°25»N 


33°30'E 


2795 m 


9°03'N 


24°30'E ca. 800 m 


4°10'N 


33°07'E 


2623m 


sns'N 


34°35'E 




ll 58'N 


32°45' 




4°00'N 


32°51'E 


1900 m 


8°32'N 


28°05'E 




ca. 4°35'N 


35°00E 


500 m 


3°55'N 


32°55 , E 


3187m 


6°50'N 


31°15'E 




4°52'N 


31 o 30'E 


450 m 


9 16"N 


, 24°23'E 


600 m 


4°03'N 


f 30°37'E 




3°52'N 


f 31°40 , E 




10°35'N 


, 32°10'E 




4°45'N 


, 33°35'E 




5°45'N 


, 31°07'E 


1063 m 


4°32'N 


, 34 14'E 


700 m 


3°55'N 


, 32°55'E 


3180 m 


3°56'N 


, 32°57'E 


2600 m 


9°53'N 


, 32°07'E 




7°10'N 


, 31 o 20'E 




13°10'N 


, 32°42'E 


380 m 


5 06'N 


, 31 30'E 


500 m 


4 45'N 


, 28 22'E 




4 03'N 


, 32 32' E 


1250m 


9°30'N 


, 31°40'E 


386 m 


4°55'N 


, 29°28'E 




7°25'N 


, 28°12'E 




10°25'N 


, 32°15'E 




8°25'N 


, 29 15'E 




5°10'N 


, 31°47'E 




6°05'N 


, 29°58'E 




4°15'N 


, 33°35'E 


1900 m 


4°52'N 


, 34 o 00'E 


800 m 



99 



Nibor, Lake 6°52'N, 30 o 15'E 

Nimule 3°36'N, 32°02'E 

No, Lake 9°23'N, 30°25'E 

Raffili 6°57'N, 27°58'E 

Raga 8°27'N, 25°40'E 

Renk 11°45'N, 32°47'E 

Riki River 8°95'N, 24°35'E ca. 1000m 

Rumbek 6°48'N, 29°40'E 

Shambe 7°05'N, 30°45'E 

Sobat River ca. 9°00'N, 32°30'E 

Talanga Forest 4°01 f N, 32°43*E 950m 

Tambura 

Tapari River 

Tonj 

Torit 

Turkana, Lake 4°30'N, 35°55'E 



Wau 7°43'N, 27°58'E 

Wedweil 

Yambio 
Yei 

Zande 

Zeraf . Bahr el 



4°01 


N, 


32°43'E 


5°35 


N, 


27°27'E 


5°08 


N, 


30°52'E 


7°17 


N, 


28°45'E 


4°25 


N, 


32°35'E 


4°30 


N, 


35°55'E 


7°43 


N, 


27°58'E 


8°58 


N, 


27°12'E 


4°34 


N, 


28°25'E 


4°05 


N, 


30°40'E 


4°30 


N, 


28°30'E 


9°32 


N, 


31 o 10'E 



100 



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104 



INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES 



Numbers refer to species, not pages 



abdimi, Ciconia 25 
aberrans, Cisticola 520 
abingoni, Campethera 371 
abyssinica, Alcippe 428 
abyssinica, Coracias 325 
abyssinica, Hirundo 396 
abyssinicus, Bucorvus 346 
abyssinicus, Turdus 495 
Accipiter 74 
Acrocephalus 499 
Acryllium p. 23 
Actitis 175 
Actophilornis 156 
acuta, Anas 41 
adsimilis, Dicrurus 410 
adusta, Muscicapa 576 
aegyptius, Caprimulgus 276 
aegyptius, Pluvianus 202 
aequatorialis , Apus 290 
aequatorialis, Sheppardia 491 
aereus, Ceuthmochares 261 
aeruginosas, Circus 65 
aethiopica, Hirundo 397 
aethiopica, Threskiornis 34 
aegyptiacus, Alopochen 40 
afer, Euplectes 683 
afer, Nilaus 618 
afer, Ptilostomus 420 
afer, Turtur 233 
af finis, Apus 291 
af finis, Sarothrura 145 
afra, Pytilia 761 
africanus, Actophilornis 156 
africanus, Bubo 268 
africanus, Buphagus 654 
africanus, Gyps 59 
africanus, Phalacrocorax 5 
Agapornis 238 
aguimp, Motacilla 604 
alba, Calidris 187 
alba, Egretta 16 
alba, Motacilla 605 
alba, Platalea 35 
alba, Tyto 266 
alboterminatus , Tockus 338 
albicapilla, Cossypha 467 
albicauda, Mirafra 388 
albiceps, Vanellus 168 
albiceps, Psalidoprocne 405 
albicollis, Ficedula 573 
albicollis, Merops 313 
j albifrons, Amblyospiza 680 



albifrons, Pentholaea 486 

albigularis, Phyllastrephus 454 

albinucha, Columba 219 

albipectus, Trichastoma 430 

albirostris, Bubalornis 715 

albiventris, Parus 421 

alboterminatus, Tockus 338 

albus, Corvus 416 

Alcedo 303 

alcinus, Macheiramphus 106 

Alcippe 428 

Ale the 461 

alexandrinus , Charadrius 159 

alfredi, Bradypterus 512 

alleni, Porphyrio 142 

alopex, Falco 108 

Alopochen 40 

alpina, Calidris 188 

Amadina 768 

Amanda va 739 

Amblyospiza 680 

amethystina, Nectarinia 661 

Anaplectes 681 

Anas 41 

Anastomus 24 

Andropadus 442 

angolensis, Dryoscopus 609 

angolensis, Gypohierax 58 

angulata, Gallinula 140 

Anhinga 6 

Anomalospiza 682 

Anthreptes 656 

Anthropoides 136 

An thus 597 

Apalis 506 

Apaloderma 300 

apiaster, Merops 314 

apivorus, Pernis 103 

Aplopelia 218 

Apus 290 

apus, Apus 292 

aquatica, Muscicapa 577 

Aquila 81 

arabs, Otis 154 

Ardea 9 

ardens, Euplectes 684 

Ardeola 13 

ardesiaca, Egretta 17 

ardosiaceus, Falco 109 

Arenaria 195 

arnaudi, Pseudonigrita 720 

arquatrix, Columba 220 



105 



Artomyias 569 

arundinaceus , Acrocephalus 499 
asiaticus, Charadrius 160 
Asio 267 

astrild, Estrilda 743 
aterrimus, Phoeniculus 331 
atrata, Ceratogymna 337 
atricapilla, Sylvia 560 
atricollis, Ortygospiza 759 
atrogularis, Serinus 781 
audeberti , Pachycoccyx 260 
augur, Buteo 87 
auguralis, Buteo 88 
auratus, Oriolus 412 
auritus, Nettapus 52 
australis, Tchagra 620 
australis, Treron 236 
avosetta, Recurvirostra 197 
axillaris, Euplectes 685 
ayresii, Cicticola 521 
Aythya 49 

baboecala, Bradypterus 513 
badia, Halcyon 306 
badiceps, Eremomela 539 
badius, Accipiter 74 
badius, Ploceus 693 
Baeopogon 446 

baeticatus, Acrocephalus 500 
baglafecht, Ploceus 694 
Balaeniceps 22 
Balearica 137 
Barbarus, Laniarius 611 
barbatus, Apus p. 44 
barbatus, Gypaetus p. 15 
barbatus, Pycnonoyus 459 
Bathmocercus 511 
Batis 583 

baumanni, Phyllastrephus 455 
bellicosus, Polemaetus 98 
bengalus , Uraeginthus 765 
benghalensis, Rostratula 158 
biarmicus, Falco 110 
.Bias 587 

bicolor, Dendrocygna 38 
bicolor, Lonchura 769 
bicolor, Ploceus 695 
bidentatus, Lybius 348 
blanchoti, Malaconotus 616 
Bleda 447 

blissetti, Platysteira 592 
bodessa, Cisticola 522 
bollei, Phoeniculus 332 
bonapartei, Gymnobucco 347 
bonelli, Phylloscopus 549 
borin, Sylvia 561 



Bostrychia 32 

Botaurus p. 8 

bottae, Oenanthe 480 

brachydactyla, Calandrella 383 

brachyptera, Cisticola 523 

brachyura, Sylvietta 566 

Bradornis 570 

Bradypterus 512 

brevicaudata , Camaroptera 515 

brevipes, Accipiter 75 

brevis, Bycanistes 335 

breweri, Merops 315 

Bubalornis 715 

Bubo 268 

Bucorvus 346 

bulocki, Merops 316 

Buphagus 654 

Burhinus 198 

Butastur 86 

Buteo 87 

buteo, Buteo 89 

Butorides 15 

Bycanistes 335 

cabanisi, Emberiza 774 
caerulescens, Muscicapa 578 
caerulescens, Rallus 144 
caeruleus, Elanus 105 
caesia, Coracina 440 
caffer, Apus 293 
caffra, Cossypha 468 
cailliautii, Campethera 375 
Calandrella 383 
Calidris 187 
calurus, Criniger 452 
Camaroptera 515 
camelus, Struthio 1 
camerunensis, Hypochera 729 
Campephaga 437 
campestris, Anthus 597 
Campethera 371 
camurus, Tockus 339 
canicapilla, Nigrita 758 
canicollis, Serinus 782 
canorus, Cuculus 256 
cantans, Cisticola 524 
cantillans, Mirafra 389 
capensis, Anas p. 14 
capensis, Asio 267 
capensis, Burhinus 198 
capensis, Corvus 417 
capensis, Euplectes 686 
capensis, Microparra 157 
capensis, Oena 224 
capicola, Streptopelia 225 
capistrata, Nesocharis 757 



106 



Caprimulgus 276 

caprius, Chrysococcyx 249 

carbo, Phalacrocorax p. 7 

cardinalis, Quelea 712 

caroli, Campethera 372 

caspia, Sterna 213 

castanea, Platysteira 590 

castanopterus, Passer p. 91 

caudata, Coracias p. 47 

cauda tus, Lamprotornis 641 

Centropus 262 

Ceratogymna 337 

Cercomela 463 

Cercotrichas 464 

cervinus, Anthus 598 

Ceryle 301 

Ceuthmochares 261 

chalcopterus, Rhinoptilus 203 

chalcospilos, Turtur 

chalcurus , Lamprotornis 642 

chalybaeus, Lamprotornis 643 

chalybeata, Hypochera 730 

Charadrius 159 

Chelictinia 104 

chelicuti, Halcyon 307 

cherrug, Falco 111 

chinensis, Coturnix 120 

chiniana, Cisticola 525 

chicquera, Falco 112 

Chlidonias 210 

chloris, Nicator 453 

Chlorocichla 449 

chloronota, Camaroptera 516 

Chloropeta 518 

chloropterus , Lamprotornis 644 

chloropus, Gallinula p. 25 

chloropygia, Nectarinia 662 

chocolatina, Melaenornis 574 

Chrysococcyx 249 

chrysoconus, Pogoniulus 357 

Ciccaba 270 

Cichladusa 466 

Ciconia 25 

ciconia, Ciconia 26 

cincta, Riparia 407 

cinctus, Rhinoptilus 204 

cinerascens, Circaetus 70 

cinerea, Apalis 506 

cinerea, Ardea 9 

cinerea, Creatophora 640 

cinerea, Motacilla 606 

cinereola, Cisticola 526 

cinereus, Circaetus 71 

cinereus, Xenus 182 

cinnamomeiventris , Thamnolaea 494 

cinnamomeus, Bradypterus 514 



Cinnyricinclus 638 
Circaetus 70 
Circus 65 

cirrocephalus, Larus p. 33 
Cisticola 520 

citrenelloides , Serinus 783 
Clamator 253 
clamosus, Cuculus 257 
clanga, Aquila p. 21 
clappertoni, Francolinus 123 
clara, Motacilla p. 78 
clarus, Caprimulgus 277 
climacurus, Caprimulgus 278 
clypeata, Anas 42 
Clytospiza 740 

coccinigaster, Nectarinia 663 
Colius 298 

collaris, Anthreptes 656 
collaris, Lanius 625 
collurio, Lanius 626 
collybita, Phylloscopus 550 
Columba 219 

comitata, Muscicapa 579 
communis, Sylvia 562 
concolor> Falco p. 21 
Coracias 325 
Coracina 440 

cordofanica, Mirafra 390 
coronatus, Stephanoaetus 99 
coronatus, Vanellus 169 
corvina, Corvinella 624 
Corvinella 624 
Corvus 416 
Corythaeola 242 
Corythaixoides 243 
Cossypha 467 
Coturnix 120 
coturnix, Coturnix 121 
crassirostris, Vanellus 170 
crassus, Poicephalus 239 
Creatophora 640 
crecca. Anas 43 
Crex 138 
crex , Crex 1 38 
Crinifer 244 
Criniger 452 
cristata, Alcedo 303 
cristata, Corythaeola 242 
cristata, Fulica 25 
croceus, Macronyx 603 
cruentus, Rhodophoneus 619 
crumeniferus, Leptoptilus 30 
Cryptospiza 742 
cucullata, Lonchura 770 
cuculoides, Aviceda p. 21 
Cuculus 256 



107 



cuprea, Nectarinia 664 
cupreus, Chrysococcyx 250 
curruca, Sylvia 563 
cursor, Cursorius 200 
Cursorius 200 

curvirostris, Andropadus 442 
cuvieri , Falco 113 
cyanea, Platysteira 591 
cyanocampter , Cossypha 469 
cyanocephalus , Uraeginthus 766 
cyanogaster, Coracias 326 
Cypsiurus 296 

darnaudii, Trachyphonus 361 
daurica, Hirundo 398 
decipiens, Streptopelia 226 
delegorguei, Columba 221 
delegorguei, Coturnix 122 
Delichon 395 
Dendrocygna 38 
Dendropicos 378 
denhami, Neotis 152 
dentata, Petronia 726 
deserti, Oenanthe 481 
diademata, Ale the 461 
Dicrurus 410 
Dinemellia 717 
dinemelli, Dinemellia 717 
domesticus, Passer 721 
donaldsoni, Caprimulgus 279 
dorsalis, Lanius 627 
dorsostriatus, Serinus 784 
Drymocichla 5 37 
Dryocichloides 474 
dubius, Charadrius 161 
dubius, Hieraaetus p. 21 
dybowskii, Clytospiza 740 

ecaudatus, Terathopius 73 
edolioides, Melaenornis 575 
edouardi, Guttera 132 
egregia, Crex 
Egretta 16 
Elanus 105 

elegans, Sarothrura 146 
eleonorae, Falco p. 21 
Emberiza 774 
emini, Ploceus 696 
Eminia 538 

eminibey, Passer 722 
Empidornis 572 
Ephippiorhynchus 29 
episcopus, Ciconia 27 
epops. Upupa 330 
Erannornis 593 
Eremomela 539 
Eremopterix 384 



erythrocephalus , Trachyphonus 362 
erythroceria, Nectarinia 665 
erythronotos , Estrilda 744 
erthrophthalma, Netta 51 
erythrops, Cisticola 527 
erythrops, Quelea 713 
erythroptera, Heliolais 542 
erythropygia, Mirafra 391 
erythrorhynchus , Anas 44 
erythrorhynchus, Tockus 340 
erythro.thoraxm Stiphrornis 492 
Estrilda 743 
Euplectes 683 
Eupodotis 148 
Eurocephalus 636 
europaeus , Caprimulgus 280 
Eurystomus 329 
excubitor, Lanius 628 
excubitorius, Lanuis 629 
exilis, Indicator 363 
eximia, Bleda 447 
exustus, Pterocles 215 

falcinellus, Limicola 192 
falcinellus, Plegadis 33 
Falco 108 

familiaris, Cercomela 463 
famosa, Nectarinia 666 
fasciata, Amadina 768 
fasciatus, Tockus 341 
fasciinucha, Falco 114 
ferina, Aythya p. 14 
ferruginea, Calidris 189 
ferrugineus, Laniarius 612 
Ficedula 573 
fischeri, Turdus 496 
fischeri, Vidua 733 
f lammeus , Asio 
flammulata, Megabyas 589 
flava, Campephaga 437 
flava, Motacilla 607 
flavicans, Macrosphenus 546 
flavicollis, Chlorocichla 449 
flavida, Apalis 507 
flavigaster, Hyliota 588 
flavigularis, Chrysosossyx 251 
flavirostra, Limnocorax 141 
flavirostris, Rhynchops 214 
flavirostris, Tockus 342 
flaviventris, Emberiza 775 
forbesi, Charadrius 162 
forbesi, Emberiza 776 
fraenatus, Caprimulgus 281 
fransiscanus, Euplectes 687 
Francolinus 123 
f raseri , Stizorhina 494 



108 



fringilloides, Lonchura 771 
frontalis, Sporopipes 728 
fulgidus, Onychognathus 648 
Fulica p. 15 

fuliginosa, Artomyias 569 
fuligula, Ay thy a 49 
fuligula, Hirundo 399 
fulvescens, Trichastoma 431 
funebris, Laniarius 613 
f une reus, Parus 422 
fuscescens, Dendropicos 377 
f uscus , Larus 

gabar, Melierax 50 
galactotes, Cercotrichas 464 
galactotes, Cisticola 529 
galbula, Ploceus 697 
Galerida 387 
gallicus, Circaetus 72 
Gallinago 183 
gallinago, Gallinago 183 
Gallinula 140 
gambagae, Muscicapa 580 
gambensis, Dryoscopus 610 
gambensis , Plectopterus 53 
garrulus, Coracias 327 
garzetta, Egretta 18 
Gelochelidon 212 
gierowii, Euplectes 688 
glandarius, Clamator 253 
Glareola 205 
glareola, Tringa 177 
Glaucidiura 271 
glaucurus, Eurystomus 329 
goertae, Mesopicos 379 
goliath, Ardea 10 
Gorsachius 20 

gracillirostris, Acrocephalus 501 
gracillirostris , Andropadus 443 
grillii, Centropus 262 
griseicapilla, Lonchura 772 
griseldis , Acrocephalus 502 
griseopyga, Hirundo 400 
griseus, Passer 723 
gubernator, Lanius 630 
guifsobalito, Lybius 349 
guinea, Columba 222 
gularis, Cuculus 258 
gularis, Serinus 785 
guttata, Cichladusa 466 
Guttera 132 
Gymnobucco 347 
Gypaetus p. 15 
Gypohierax 58 
Gyps 59 



habessinica, Nectarinia p. 85 

hagedash, Bostrychia 32 

Halcyon 306 

Haliaeetus 101 

haliaetus, Pandion 107 

hartlaubi, Pteronetta 54 

hartlaubii, Eupodotis 148 

Heliolais 542 

hemprichii, Tockus 343 

heuglini , Cossypha 470 

heuglini, Neotis 153 

heuglini , Ploceus 698 

hiaticula, Charadrius 163 

Hieraaetus 92 

Himantopus 196 

himantopus, Himantopus 196 

Hippolais 543 

hirsutus , Lybius 350 

hirundineus, Merops 317 

Hirundo 396 

hispanica, Oenanthe 482 

hordeaceus, Euplectes 689 

hortensis, Sylvia 564 

hortulana, Emberiza P. 9 7 

horus, Apus p. 44 

hottentota, Anas 45 

hunteri, Nectarinia p. 85 

hybridus, Chlidonias 210 

Hylia 544 

Hyliota 588 

hypermetra, Mirafra 392 
Hypochera 729 

hypocherina, Vidua 734 
hypoleucos , Actitis 175 
ianthinogaster , Uraeginthus 767 
ibis, Ardeola 14 
ibis, Mycteria 31 
icterina, Hippolais p. 72 
icteropygialis, Eremomela 540 
icterorhynchus , Francolinus 124 
imberbis, Anomalospiza 682 
incana, Drymocichla 537 
Indicator 363 
indicator, Baepogon 446 
indicator, Indicator 364 
inornatus, Caprimulgus 282 
insignis, Ploceus 699 
insignis, Prodotiscus 368 
interjecta, Vidua 735 
intermedia, Egretta 19 
intermedius, Ploceus 700 
interpres, Arenaria 195 
isabellina, Oenanthe 483 
Ispidina 311 
Ixobrychus 8 



109 



jacksoni, Apalis 508 

jacksoni, Ploceus 701 

jacksoni, Tockus 344 

jacobinus, Clamator 254 

jamesi, Tchagra 621 

jamesoni, Platysteira blissetti 592 

juncidis, Cisticola 530 

Jynx 369 

Kaupifalco 94 
klaas, Chrysococcyx 252 
kori, Otis 155 
krameri, Psittacula 241 

lacrymosus, Lybius 351 
lacteus, Bubo 269 
laetissima, Chlorocichla 450 
Lagonosticta 750 
lamelligerus, Anastomus 24 
Lamprotornis 641 
languida, Hippolais p. 72 
Laniarius 611 
Lanius 625 
Larus 208 

larva ta, Aplopelia 218 
larva ta, Lagonosticta 750 
larvatus, Oriolus 413 
lateralis, Cisticola 531 
lathami, Francolinus 125 
latirostris, Andropadus 444 
lecontei, Ispidina 311 
lepida, Emina 538 
Leptoptilos 30 

leschenaultii, Charadrius p. 27 
leucocephala, Halcyon 
leucocephalus , Lybius 
leucogaster, Cinnyricinclus 638 
leucogaster, Corythaixoides 243 
leucolaima, Pogoniulus 358 
leucolophus, Tauraco 246 
leucomelas, Parus 423 
leucomelos, Lybius 353 
leuconotus, Gorsachius 20 
leuconotus, Thalassornis 56 
leucophrys, Anthus 599 
leucophrys, Cercotrichas 465 
leucopogon, Prinia 554 
leucopterus, Chlidonias 211 
leucopygius, Serinus 786 
leucopygius, Turdoides 433 
leucorodia, Platalea 36 
leucoscepus, Francolinus 126 
leucotis , Eremopterix 384 
leucotis, Otus 272 
leucotis, Tauraco 
leucurus, Vanellus 171 



levaillantii , Clamator 255 

levaillantoides, Francolinus 127 

lichtensteinii, Pterocles 216 

Limicola 192 

Limnicorax 141 

Limosa 193 

limosa, Limosa 193 

Linurgus 780 

Locustella 545 

locustella, Ortygospiza p. 95 

Lonchura 769 

longicausa, Erannornis 593 

longipennis, Macrodipteryx 288 

longuemarei, Anthreptes 657 

Lophaetus 95 

ludwigii, Dicrurus 411 

luehderi, Laniarius 615 

lugens , Parisoma 547 

lugens, Streptopelia 227 

Luscinia 475 

luscinia, Luscinia 475 

luscinioides, Locustella 545 

luteolus, Ploceus 702 

luteus, Passer 724 

Lybius 348 

Lymnocryptes 186 

Macheiramphus 106 
Macrodipteryx 288 
Macronyx 603 
Macrosphenus 546 
macroura, Vidua 736 
macrourus , Circus 66 
macrourus , Euplectes 690 
macrourus , Urocolius 299 
macrourus, Urotriorchis 100 
maculatus , Indicator 365 
mahali, Plocepasser 718 
malabarica, Lonchura 773 
Malaconotus 616 
malimbica, Halcyon 309 
Malimbus 691 
Mandingoa 756 

mariquensis, Nectarinia 667 
maxima, Ceryle 301 
media, Gallinago 184 
Megabyas 589 

megarhynchos , Luscinia 476 
meiffreni, Ortyxelos 134 
Melaenornis 574 
melanocephala, Ardea 11 
melanocephalus, Lybius 354 
melanocephalus, Ploceus 703 
melanogaster , Eupodotis 149 
melanogaster, Ploceus 704 
melanoleucus , Accipiter 76 



110 



melanotis, Estrilda 745 
melanotos, Sarkidiornis 55 
melba, Apus 294 
melba, Pytilia 762 
-meleagris, Numida 133 
Melierax 96 

mentalis, Sphenoeacus 558 
Merops 313 
Mesopicos 379 
metabates, Melierax 97 
metallicus, Anthreptes p. 84 
meyeri, Poicephalus 240 
Microparra 157 

microrhynchus, Bradornis 570 
migrans, Milvus 102 
Milvus 102 

minimus, Lymnocryptes 186 
minor, Batis 583 
minor, Indicator 366 
minor, Lanius 632 
minor, Phoeniculus 333 
minullus, Accipiter 77 
minuta, Calidris 190 
minuta, Tchagra 622 
minutus , Ixobrychus 7 
Mirafra 388 

modes ta, Galerida 387 
molitor, Batis 584 
monachus, Centropus 263 
monachus, Neophron 61 
mongolus, Charadrius 164 
monogrammicus , Kaupifalco 94 
monteiri, Clytospiza 741 
Monticola 477 
morio, Onychognathus 649 
Motacilla 604 
motitensis, Passer 725 
mozambicus, Serinus 787 
Muscicapa 576 
musculus, Remiz 424 
musicus, Bias 587 
Musophaga 245 
Mycteria 31 
Myioparus 582 

myioptilus, Schoutedenapus 297 
Myrmecocichla 480 

naevia, Coracias 328 

namaquus, Thripias 382 

nana, Cisticola 532 

narina, Apaloderma 300 

nasutus , Tockus 345 

natalensis, Caprimulgus 283 
| natalensis, Chloropeta 518 
! natalensis, Cisticola 533 
I natalensis, Cossypha 471 



naumanni, Falco p. 21 

nebularia, Tringa 178 

Nectarinia 661 

Neophron 61 

Neotis 152 

Nesocharis 757 

Netta 51 

Nettapus 52 

niansae, Apus p. 44 

Nicator 453 

niger, Bubalornis 716 

niger, Chlidonias p. 33 

nigeriae, Hypochera 731 

nigerrimus , Ploceus 705 

nigra, Ciconia 28 

nigra, Myrmecocichla 479 

nigriceps, Eremopterix 385 

nigricollis, Ploceus 706 

nigripennis, Gallinago 185 

nigripennis, Oriolus 414 

Nigrita 758 

nigromitratus , Trochocercus 595 

Nilaus 618 

nilotica, Gelochelidon 212 

nipalensis, Aquila 81 

nisoria, Sylvia 565 

nitens, Malimbus 691 

nitens, Trochocercus 596 

nitidula, Mandingoa 756 

niveicapilla, Cossypha 472 

nivosa, Campethera 373 

nonnula, Estrilda 746 

nordmanni, Glareola 205 

novaeseelandiae, Anthus 600 

nubica, Campethera 374 

nubicus, Caprimulgus p. 4 2 

nubicus, Lanius 633 

nubicus, Merops 318 

nuchalis, Glareola 206 

Numida 133 

Nycticorax 21 

nycticorax, Nycticorax 21 

nyroca, Aythya 50 

obsoletus, Picoides 381 
occipitalis, Lophaetus 95 
occipitalis, Trigonoceps; 64 
ochropus, Tringa 179 
ocularis, Ploceus 707 
oedicnemus, Burhinus p. 31 
Oena 224 
oenanthe 480 
oenanthe, Oenanthe 484 
olivacea, Nectarinia 668 
olivaceus, Linurgus 780 
onocrotalus, Pelecanus 3 



111 



Onychognathus 648 

oreobates, Merops 319 

orientalis, Anthreptes 658 

orientalis, Batis 585 

orientalis, Merops 320 

orientalis, Vidua 737 

Oriolus 412 

oriolus, Oriolus 415 

Ortygospiza 759 

Ortyxelos 134 

osea, Nectarinia 669 

ostrinus, Pyrenestes 760 

Otis 154 

Otus 272 

ovampensis, Accipiter p. 21 

Pachycoccyx 260 
pallida, Hippolais 543 
pallidus, Apus 295 
pallidus, Bradornis 571 
paludicola, Estrilda 747 
paludicola, Riparia 408 
Pandion 107 
paradisaea, Vidua 738 
Parisoma 547 
Par us 421 

parva, Porzana p. 24 
parvulus, Remiz 425 
parvus, Cypsiurus 296 
Passer p. 91 

pavonina, Balearica 137 
pectoralis, Capriraulgus 284 
pectoralis, Coracina 441 
pecuarius, Charadrius 165 
Pelecanus 3 

pelegrinoides, Falco 115 
peli, Scotopelia 175 
pelios, Turdus 497 
penelope, Anas 46 
pennatus, Hieraaetus 92 
Pentholaea 486 
percnopterus , Neophron 62 
peregrinus, Falco 116 
perkeo, Batis 586 
perlatum, Glaucidium 271 
permista, Campethera 375 
Pernis 103 

persicus, Merops 321 
Petronia 726 

petrosus, Ptilopachus 131 
Phalacrocorax 5 
Philomachus 194 
phoenicea, Campephaga 438 
phoenicoptera, Pytilia 763 
Phoenicopterus 37 
Phoeniculus 331 



Phoenicurus 487 

phoenicurus, Phoenicurus 487 

Phyllastrephus 454 

Phyllolais 548 

Phylloscopus 549 

piaggiae, Turdus 498 

Picoides 381 

picta, Ispidina 312 

placidus, Phyllastrephus 456 

Platalea 35 

platurus, Anthreptes 659 

Platysteira 590 

platyura, Schoenicola 557 

plebejus, Turdoides 434 

Plectopterus 53 

Plegadis 33 

pleschanka, Oenanthe 485 

Plocepasser 718 

Ploceus 693 

plumata, Prionops 637 

plumbeus, Myioparus 582 

Pluvialis 167 

Pluvianus 202 

podobe, Cercotrichas p. 6 3 

poecilolaemus, Dendropicos 378 

poecilosterna, Mirafra 393 

Poeoptera 651 

Poginiulus 357 

Pogonocichla 488 

Poicephalus 239 

Polemaetus 98 

Polihierax 119 

poliocephala, Alethe 462 

poliocephalus, Caprimulgus 285 

poliogaster, Zosterops 678 

poliopleura, Emberiza 777 

poliopterus Melierax p. 21 

Polyboroides 69 

pomarina, Aquila 82 

Porphyrio 142 

porphyrio, Porphyrio p. 25 

Porzana 143 

porzana, Porzana 143 

prasina, Hylia 544 

pratincola, Glareola 207 

preussi, Nectarinia 670 

Prinia 554 

Prionops 637 

pristoptera, Psalidoprocne 406 

Prodotiscus 368 

Psalidoprocne 405 

Pseudonigrita 720 

Psittacula 241 

Pterocles 215 

Pteronetta 54 

Ptilopachus 131 



112 



Ptilostomus 420 
Ptyrticus 429 
pugnax, Philomachus 194 
pulchella, Nectarinia 671 
pulchella, Phyllolais 548 
pulchra, Apalis 509 
pulchra, Sarothrura 147 
pullaria, Agapornis 238 
punctifrons, Remiz 426 
punctuligera, Campethera 376 
purpuratus, Trachylaemus 360 
purpurea, Ardea 12 
pur pure us, Laraprotornis 645 
purpureus, Phoeniculus 334 
purpuropterus , Laraprotornis 646 
pusilla, Eremomela 541 
pusilla, Porzana p. 25 
pusillus, Merops 322 
pusillus, Pogoniulus 359 
puveli, Trichastoma 432 
Pycnonotus 459 
pygargus, Circus 67 
Pyrenestes 760 
pyrgita, Petronia 727 
Pytilia 762 

quadribrachys , Alcedo 304 
quadricincut, Pterocles 217 
Quelea 712 
que lea, Quelea 714 
querquedula, Anas 47 
quiscalina, Campephaga 439 

radiatus, Polyboroides 69 
ralloides, Ardeola 13 
Rallus 144 

ranivorus, Circus 68 
rapax, Aquila 83 
rara, Lagonosticta 751 
rectirostris, Anthreptes 660 
Recurvirostra 197 
reichardi, Serinus 788 
Remiz 424 

rex, Balaeniceps 22 
Rhinoptilus 203 
rhipidurus, Corvus 418 
rhodopareia, Lagonosticta 752 
Rhodophoneus 619 
rhodopyga, Estrilda 748 
Rhyn chops 214 
ridibundus, Larus 209 
riocourii , Chelictinia 104 
Riparia 407 
riparia, Riparia 409 
robusta, Cisticola 534 
rolleti, Lybius 355 



rossae, Musophaga 245 
Rostratula 158 
ruber, Phoenicopterus 37 
rubescens, Nectarinia 672 
rubetra, Saxicola 490 
rubiginosus, Ploceus 708 
rubiginosus, Turdoides 435 
rubricata, Lagonosticta 753 
rubriceps, Anaplectes 681 
rubricollis, Malimbus 692 
rudis, Ceryle 302 
rueppelli, Eurocephalus 636 
rueppelli, Gyps 60 
rufa, Anhinga 6 
rufescens, Acrocephalus 503 
rufescens, Pelecanus 4 
ruficapilla, Spermophaga 764 
ruficeps, Cisticola 535 
ruficollis, Corvus 419 
ruficollis, Jynx 369 
ruficollis , Tachybaptus 2 
ruficrista, Eupodotis 150 
rufifrons, Spiloptila 559 
rufinus, Buteo 90 
rufipennis, Butastur 86 
rufipennis, Trichastoma p. 60 
ruf iventris , Accipiter 78 
rufocinerea, Monticola 477 
ruf ocinnamomea , Mirafra 394 
rufogularis, Apalis 510 
rufopicta, Lagonosticta 754 
ruf us , Bathmocercus 511 
rupicoloides , Falco p. 21 
rustica, Hirundo 401 

Sagittarius 57 

Salpornis 427 

salvadorii, Cryptospiza 742 

Sarkidiornis 55 

Sarothrura 145 

saxatilis, Monticola 478 

Saxicola 489 

scandens, Phyllastrephus 457 

schlegelii, Francolinus 128 

Schoenicola 557 

schoenobaenus , Acrocephalus 504 

Schoutedenapus 297 

schuetti, Tauraco 248 

scirpaceus, Acrocephalus 505 

scops, Otus 273 

Scopus 23 

scotocerca, Cercomela p. 6 3 

Scotopelia 275 

seimundi, Nectarinia 673 

semipartitus , Empidornis 572 

semirufa, Cossypha 473 



113 



semirufa, Hirundo 402 
semitorquata, Alcedo 305 
semitorquata, Streptopelia 228 
semi tor qua tus , Polihierax 119 
senator/ Lanius 634 
senegala, Lagonosticta 755 
senegala, Tchagra 623 
senegalensis, Burhinus 199 
senegalensis , Centropus 264 
senegalensis, Ephippiorhynchus 29 
senegalensis, Eupodotis 151 
senegalensis, Halcyon 310 
senegalensis, Hirundo 403 
senegalensis, Nectarinia 674 
senegalensis, Otus 274 
senegalensis, Streptopelia 229 
senegalensis, Zosterops 679 
senegallus, Vanellus 172 
sephaena, Francolinus 129 
Serinus 781 

serpentarius , Sagittarius 57 
sharpii, Cynnyricinclus 639 
shelleyi, Spreo 652 
Sheppardia 491 

sibilatrix, Phylloscopus 551 
signata, Eremopterix 386 
similis, Anthus 601 
similis, Chloropeta 519 
simplex, Camaroptera 517 
simplex, Chlorocichla 451 
smithii, Hirundo 404 
solitarius, Cuculus 259 
solitarius, Monticola p. 65 
somalica, Prinia 555 
somalicus, Lanius 635 
sparsa, Anas 48 
Spermophaga 764 
Sphenoeacus 558 
spilogaster, Hieraaetus 93 
spilonota, Salpornis 427 
Spiloptila, 559 
spinosus, Vanellus 173 
splendidus, Lamprotornis 647 
Sporopipes 728 
Spreo 652 

squama tus, Francolinus 130 
squatarola, Pluvialis 167 
stagnatilis, Tringa 180 
stellaris, Botaurus p. 8 
stellata, Pogonocichla 488 
stellatus, Caprimulgus 286 
Stephanoaetus 99 
Sterna 213 
Stiphrornis 492 
Stizorhina 493 
strepera, Anas p. 14 



strepitans, Phyllastrephus 458 
Streptopelia 225 
streptophorus, Francolinus p. 23 
striata, Muscicapa 581 
striatus, Butorides 15 
striatus, Colius 298 
striolatus , Serinus 789 
striolata, Emberiza 778 
Struthio 1 

stuhlmanni, Poeoptera 651 
sturmii , Ixobrychus 8 
subbuteo, Falco 117 
subcylindricus , Bycanistes 336 
subflava, Amandava 739 
subflava, Prinia 556 
sulfureopectus, Malaconotus 617 
superbus , Spreo 653 
superciliaris, Camaroptera p. 69 
superciliosus, Centropus 265 
superciliosus, Merops 323 
superciliosus, Plocepasser 719 
superciliosus, Ploceus 
sylvatica, Turnix 135 
Sylvia 560 
Sylvietta 566 
syndactyla, Bleda 448 

Tacazze, Nectarinia 675 
tachardus, Buteo 91 
tachiro, Accipiter 79 
Tachybaptus 2 
taeniopterus , Ploceus 710 
tahapisi, Emberiza 779 
Tauraco 246 
Tchagra 620 
tectus, Vanellus 174 
Telecanthura p. 44 
temminckii , Calidris 191 
temminckii, Cursorius 201 
tenebrosus, Turdoides 436 
tenellus, Tmetothylacus 608 
tephronotus , Glaucidium p . 4 1 
Terathopius 73 
Terpsiphone 594 
Thalassornis 56 
Thamnolaea 494 
Threskiornis 34 
Thripias 382 
tinnunculus, Falco 118 
Tmetothylacus 608 
Tockus 338 
Torgos 63 

torquata, Saxicola 490 
Torquilla, Jynx 370 
totanus, Tringa 181 
tousenellii, Accipiter 80 



114 



tracheliotus , Torgos 63 

Trachylaemus 360 

Trachyphonus 36 1 

Treron 236 

Trichastoma 430 

tricollaris, Charadrius 166 

tricolor, Pycnonotus 460 

Trigonoceps 64 

Tringa 177 

Tristigma, Caprimulgus 287 

trivialis, Anthus 601 

trochilus, Phylloscopus 552 

Trochocercus 595 

troglodytes, Cisticola 536 

troglodytes, Estrilda 749 

turdinus, Ptyrticus 429 

Turdoides 433 

Turdus 495 

Turnix 135 

Turtur 232 

turtur, Streptopelia 230 

tympani stria, Turtur 235 

Tyto 266 

ultramarina, Hypochera 

umbretta, Scopus 23 

umbrovirens, Phylloscopus 553 

undulata, Anas p. 14 

unicincta, Columba 223 

Upupa 330 

Uraeginthus 765 

urbica, Delichon 395 

Urocolius 299 

Urotriorchis 100 

ussheri, Telecanthura p. 44 



Vanellus 168 

variegatus, Indicator 367 
variegatus, Merops 324 
velatus, Ploceus 711 
venusta, Nectarinia 676 
verreauxi, Aquila 84 
verticalis, Nectarinia 677 
verspertinus , Falco p. 21 
vexillarius, Macrodipteryx 289 
Vidua 733 

viduata, Dendrocygna 39 
vielloti, Lybius 356 
vinacea, Streptopelia 231 
virens, Andropadus 445 
virens, Sylvietta 567 
virgo, Anthropoides 136 
viridis , Terpsiphone 594 
vocifer, Haliaeetus 101 
vulturinum , Acryllium p. 23 

waalia, Treron 237 
wahlbergi, Aquila 85 
walleri, Onychognathus 650 
whytii, Sylvietta 568 
wilsoni, Hypochera 730 
woodfordii, Ciccaba 270 

xantholophus , Mesopicos 380 
Xenus 182 

zonurus, Crinifer 244 
Zosterops 678 



11R 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES 

Numbers refer to species, not pages 



Akalet, Equatorial 492 
Alethe, Brown-chested 462 

Fire-crested 461 
Apalis, Black-collared 509 

Black-throated 508 

Buff-throated 510 

Grey 506 

Yellow-breasted 507 
Avocet 197 

Babbler, African Hill 428 

Brown 434 

Dusky 436 

Thrush 429 

White-rumped 433 
Barbet, Black-billed 349 

Black-breasted 355 

Black-throated 354 

d'Arnaud's 361 

Double-toothed 348 

Grey-throated 347 

Hairy-breasted 350 

Red and Yellow 362 

Red-fronted 353 

Spotted-flanked 351 

Vieillot's 356 

White-headed 352 

Yellow-billed 360 
Bateleur 73 
Batis, Black-headed 583 

Chinspot 584 

Grey-headed 585 

Pygmy 586 
Bee-eater, Black-headed 315 

Blue-breasted 324 

Blue-cheeked 321 

Carmine 318 

Cinnamon-chested 319 

Eurasian 314 

Little 322 

Little Green 320 

Madagascar 323 

Red-throated 316 

Swallow-tailed 312 

White-throated 313 
Bishop, Black 688 

Black-winged Red 689 

Red 687 

Yellow 686 

Yellow-crowned 683 



Bittern p. 8 

Dwarf 8 

Little 7 
Blackcap 560 

Bluebill", Red-headed 764 
Bluethroat p. 64 
Boubou, Slate-coloured 613 

Sooty 614 

Tropical 611 
Bristlebill 448 

Green-tailed 447 
Brownbul, Northern 458 
Brubru, Northern 618 
Bulbul, Common 459 

Yellow-vented 460 
Bunting, Brown-rump ed 776 

Cabanis' 774 

Cinnamon-breasted Rock 779 

Cretzschmar ' s p. 97 

Golden-breasted 775 

House 778 

Somali Golden-breasted 777 
Bustard, Arabian 154 

Black-bellied 149 

Buff-crested 150 

Denham's 152 

Hartlaub's 148 

Heuglin's 153 

Kori 155 * 

Senegal 151 
Button Quail 135 
Buzzard, Augur 87 

Common 89 

Grasshopper 86 

Honey 103 

Lizzard 94 

Long-legged 90 

Mountain 91 

Red-necked 88 

Camaroptera, Grey-backed 515 

Olive-green 516 

Yellow-browed p. 6 9 
Canary, White-bellied 784 

Yellow-crowned 782 

Yellow-fronted 787 
Chat, Brown-tailed Rock p. 63 

Cliff 480 

Red-tailed 463 

Rufous Bush 464 






116 



Chat, sooty 481 

White-fronted Black 479 
Chatterer, Rufous 435 
Chiffchaff 550 
Cisticola, Ashy 526 

Black-backed 528 

Boran 522 

Croaking 533 

Foxy 536 

Rattling 525 

Red-faced 527 

Red-pate 535 

Rock-loving 520 

Siffling 523 

Singing 524 

Stout 534 

Tiny 532 

Whistling 531 

Winding 529 

Wing-snapping 521 

Zitting 530 
Citril, African Grey-faced 783 
Coot, Red -knobbed p. 25 
Cordon-bleu, Blue-capped 766 

Red-cheeked 765 
Cormorant p . 7 

Long-tailed 5 
Corncrake 138 
Coucal, Black 262 

Blue-headed 263 

Senegal 264 

White-browed 265 
Courser, Cream-coloured 200 

Heuglin's 204 

Temminck's 201 

Violet-tipped 203 
Crake, African 139 

Baillon's p. 25 

Black 141 

Buff-spotted Pygmy 146 

Chestnut-tailed Pygmy 145 

Little p. 24 

Spotted 143 

White-spotted Pygmy 147 
Crane, Crowned 137 

Demoiselle 136 
Creeper, spotted 427 
Crimson-wing, Abyssinian 742 
Crombec 566 

Green 567 

Red-faced 568 
Crow, Pied 416 
Cuckoo, African 258 

Black 257 



Black and White 254 

Didric 249 

Emerald 250 

Eurasian 256 

Great Spotted 253 

Klaas' 252 

Levaillant's 255 

Red-chested 259 

Thick-billed 260 

Yellow- throated Green 251 
Cuckoo Shrike, Black 437 

Grey 440 

Purple-throated 439 

Red-shouldered 438 

White-breasted 441 
Curlew, Stone p. 31 
Cut-throat 768 

Darter 6 

Dove, Black-billed Wood 232 

Dusky Turtle 227 

Blue-spotted Wood 233 

Emerald-spotted Wood 234 

Laughing 229 

Lemon 2 1 8 

Mourning 226 

Namaqua 224 

Red-eyed 228 

Ring-necked 225 

Tambourine 235 

Turtle 230 

Vinaceus 231 
Drongo 4 1 

Square-tailed 411 
Duck, Black 48 

Fulvous Whistling 38 

Hartlaub's 54 

Red-billed 44 

Tufted 49 

White-backed 56 

White-faced Whistling 39 

Yellow-billed p. 14 
Dunlin 188 

Eagle, African Hawk 93 
Ayres' Hawk P. 21 
Banded Snake 70 
Beaudouin's Snake 7 2 
Black-chested 72 
Booted 92 
Brown Snake 7 1 
Crowned 99 
Fish 101 
Greater Spotted p. 21 



117 



Lesser Spotted 82 

Long-crested Hawk 95 

Martial 98 

Short- toed Snake 72 

Steppe 81 

Tawny 83 

Verreaux's 84 

Wahlberg's 85 
Egret, Cattle 14 

Great White 16 

Little 18 

Yellow-billed 19 
Eremomela, Brown-crowned 539 

Green-backed 541 

Yellow-bellied 540 

Falcon, Barbary 115 

Eleonora's p. 21 

Lanner 110 

Peregrine 116 

Pygmy 119 

Red- footed p. 21 

Red-necked 112 

Saker 111 

Sooty p. 21 

Taita 114 
Finch, Locust p. 95 

Oriole 780 

Quail 759 
Firefinch, African 753 

Bar-breasted 754 

Black -bellied 751 

Black-faced 750 

Jameson's 752 

Red-billed 755 
Fiscal 625 

Grey-backed 629 

Somali 635 

Taita 627 
Flamingo, Greater 37 

Lesser p. 11 
Flycatcher, Ashy 578 

Black 575 

Black and White 587 

Blue 593 

Blue-headed Crested 596 

Collared 573 

Dusky 576 

Dusky Blue 579 

Dusky Crested 595 

Gambaga 580 

Grey 570 

Lead-coloured 582 

Pale 571 

Paradise 594 



Shrike 589 
Sooty 569 
Spotted 581 
Swamp 577 

White-eyed Slaty 574 
Yellow-bellied 588 
Francolin, Banded 128 
Clapperton's 123 
Crested 129 
Forest 125 
Heuglin's 124 
Ring-necked p. 23 
Scaly 130 

Gadwall p. 14 
Gallinule, Allen's 142 

Purple p. 25 
Garganey 42 

Go-away Bird, White-bellied 243 
Godwit, Black-tailed 193 
Gonolek, Black-headed 612 
Goose, Egyptian 40 

Knob-billed 55 

Pygmy 52 

Spur-winged 53 
Goshawk, African 79 

Dark Chanting 97 

Gabar 96 

Pale Chanting p. 21 

Red-chested 80 
Grebe, Little 2 
Greenbul, Cameroon Sombre 442 

Honeyguide 446 

Joyful 450 

Little 445 

Olive Mountain 456 

Red-tailed 452 

Simple 451 

Slender-billed 443 

Toro Olive 455 

White-throated 454 

Yellow-whiskered 444 
Greenshank 178 
Grenadier, Purple 767 
Gr eywing , Ar che r ' s 127 

Smith's 127 
Guineafowl, Crested 132 

Tufted 133 

Vulturine p. 23 
Gull, Black-headed 209 

Grey-headed p. 33 

Lesser Black-backed 208 

Hadada 32 

Hamerkop 23 

Harrier, African Marsh 68 



118 



Marsh 65 

Montagu's 62 

Pallid 66 
Hawk, Bat 106 

Cuckoo p . 2 1 

Harrier 69 

Long- tailed 100 
Heron, Black 17 

Black-headed 11 

Goliath 10 

Green-backed 15 

Grey 9 

Night 21 

Purple 12 

Squacco 1 3 

White-backed Night 20 
Hobby 117 

African 113 
Honeybird, Cassin's 368 
Honeyguide, Black-throated 364 

Least 363 

Lesser 366 

Scaly-throated 367 

Spotted 365 
Hoopoe 330 

Abyssinian Wood 333 

Black Wood 331 

Green Wood 334 

White-headed Wood 332 
Hornbill, Abyssinian Ground 346 

Black and White Casqued 336 

Black -wattled 337 

Crowned 338 

Grey 345 

Hemprich's 343 

Jackson's 344 

Pied 341 

Red-billed 340 

Red-billed Dwarf 339 

Silvery-cheeked 335 

Yellow-billed 342 
Hylia, Green 544 

Ibis, Glossy 33 

Sacred 34 
Illadopsis, Brown 431 

Pale-breasted p. 60 

Puvel's 432 

Scaly-breasted 430 
Indigobird, Bar-breasted Firefinch 

"Camerunensis" 729 

"Nigeriae" 731 

Red-billed Firefinch 730 

Jacana 156 



Lesser 157 

Kestrel 118 

Fox 108 

Grey 109 

Lesser p. 21 

White-eyed p. 21 
Kingfisher, Blue-breasted 309 

Chestnut-bellied 308 

Chocolate-backed 306 

Dwarf 311 

Giant 301 

Half-collared 305 

Malachite 303 

Pied 302 

Pygmy 312 

Shining-blue 304 

Striped 307 

Woodland 310 
Kite, Black 102 

Black-shouldered 105 

Swallow- tailed 104 

Lammergeyer p. 15 
Lapwing, Crowned 169 

Long-toed 170 
Lark, Chestnut-backed Sparrow 384 

Chestnut-headed Sparrow 386 

Crested p. 54 

Flappet 116 

Kordofan Bush 390 

Northern White-tailed Bush 388 

Pink -breasted 393 

Red- tailed Bush 391 

Red-winged Bush 392 

Short-toed 383 

Singing Bush 389 

Sun 387 

White-fronted Sparrow 385 
Leaflove 457 

Yellow-throated 449 
Longbill, Yellow 546 
Longclaw, Yellow- throated 603 
Lovebird, Red-headed 238 

Malimbe, Blue-billed 691 

Red-headed 692 
Mannikin, Black and White 769 

Bronze 770 

Magpie 771 
732 Marabou 30 

Martin, African Rock 399 

African Sand 408 

Banded Sand 407 

House 395 

Sand 409 



119 



Moorhen p. 25 

Lesser i40 
Mousebird, Blue-naped 299 

Speckled 298 

Negrofinch, Grey-headed 758 
Nicator 453 
Nightingale 476 
Nightjar, Montane 285 

Donaldson-Smith's 279 

Dusky 281 

Egyptian276 

Eurasian 280 

Fiery-necked 284 

Freckled 287 

Long-tailed 278 

Nubian p. 42 

Pennant-winged 289 

Plain 282 

Rufous-cheeked p. 42 

Slender- tailed 2 77 

Standard-winged 288 

Star-spotted 286 

White-tailed 283 

Olive-back, Grey-headed 758 
Oriole, African Golden 412 

Black-headed 413 

Black-winged 414 

Golden 415 
Ortolan p. 9 7 
Osprey 107 
Ostrich 1 
Owl, African Marsh 267 

African Scops 274 

African Wood 270 

Barn 266 

Pel's Fishing 275 

Long-eared p. 41 

Scops 273 

Short-eared P. 41 

Spotted Eagle 268 

Verreaux's Eagle 269 

White-faced Scops 272 
Owlet, Pearl-spotted 271 

Red-chested p. 41 
Oxpecker, Red-billed 655 

Yellow-billed 654 

Parisoma, Brown 547 
Parakeet, Rose-ringed 241 
Parrot, Brown 240 

Niam Niam 239 
Partridge, Stone 131 
Pelican, Pink -backed 4 

White 3 



Petronia, Bush 726 

Yellow-spotted 727 
Piapiac 420 
Pigeon, Afep 223 

Bronze-naped 221 

Bruce 's Green 237 

Green 236 

Olive 220 

Speckled 222 

White-naped 219 
Pintail 41 
Pipit, Golden 608 

Long-billed 601 

Plain-backed 599 

Red-throated 598 

Richard's 600 

Tawny 597 

Tree 602 
Plantain Eater, Eastern Grey 244 
Plover, Black-headed 174 

Caspian 160 

Egyptian 202 

Forbe's 162 

Grey 167 

Kentish 159 

Little Ringed 161 

Quail 134 

Ringed 163 

Spur -winged 173 

Three-banded 166 

Wattled 172 

White-headed 168 

White-tailed 171 
Pochard, European p. 14 

Southern 51 

White-eyed 50 
Pratincole, Common 207 

Black-winged 205 

White-collared 206 
Prinia, Pale 555 

Tawny-flanked 556 

White-chinned 554 
Puffback 609 

Pink- footed 610 
Pytilia, Green-winged 762 

Orange-winged 761 

Red-winged 763 

Quail 121 

Blue 120 

Harlequin 122 
Quelea, Cardinal 712 

Red-billed 714 

Red-headed 713 



120 



Rail, African Water 144 
Raven, Brown-necked 419 

Fan- tailed 418 
Redshank 181 

Spotted 176 
Redstart 488 
Robin, Black Bush p. 6 3 

Forest 493 

Grey-winged Ground 474 

White-browed Scrub 465 

White-starred Forest 489 
Robinchat 468 

Blue- shouldered 469 

Red-capped 471 

Ruppell's 473 

Snowy-headed 472 

White -browed 470 

White-crowned 467 
Roller, Abyssinian 325 

Blue-bellied 326 

Broad-billed 329 

Eurasian 327 

Lilac-breasted p. 47 

Rufous-crowned 328 
Rook, Cape 417 
Roughwing, Black 406 

White-headed 405 
Ruff 194 

Sander ling 187 

Sandgrouse, Chestnut-bellied 215 

Four-banded 217 

Lichtenstein ' s 216 
Sandpiper, Broad-billed 192 

Common 175 

Curlew 189 

Green 179 

Marsh 180 

Terek 182 

Wood 177 
Sandplover, Great p. 27 

Kittlitz's 165 

Mongolian 164 
Secretary Bird 57 
Seedcracker, Large^billed 760 
Seed-eater, Streaky 789 

Streaky-headed 785 

Stripe-breasted 788 

White-rumped 786 

Yellow-rumped 781 
Shikra 74 
Shoebill 22 
Shoveler 42 



Shrike, Emin's 630 

Great Grey 628 

Grey-headed Bush 616 

Helmet 637 

Lesser Grey 632 

Luhder's 615 

Nubian 633 

Red-backed 626 

Red- tailed 631 

Rosy-patched 619 

Sulphur-breasted Bush 617 

White-crowned 636 

Woodchat 634 

Yellow-billed 624 
Silverbill 773 

Grey-headed 772 
Silverbird 572 
Skimmer 214 
Snipe, African 185 

Common 183 

Great 184 

Jack 186 

Painted 158 
Sparrow, Chestnut 722 

Grey-headed 723 

House 721 

Parrot-billed 723 

Rufous 725 

Somali p. 91 

Sudan Golden 724 
Sparrowhawk, Great 76 

Levant 75 

Little 77 

Ovampo p. 21 

Rufous 78 
Spinetail, Mottle-throated p. 44 
Spoonbill 36 

African 35 
Sprosser 475 

Spur fowl, Yellow-necked 126 
Starling, Blue-eared Glossy 643 

Brown-tailed Glossy 642 

Chestnut-winged 648 

Lesser Blue-eared Glossy 644 

Long- tailed Glossy 641 

Purple Glossy 645 

Red-winged 649 

Ruppell's Long- tailed Glossy 646 

Sharpe's 639 

Shelley's 652 

Splendid Glossy 647 

Stuhlmann's 651 



121 



Superb 653 

Violet-backed 638 

Waller's Chestnut-winged 650 

Wattled 640 
Stilt, Black-winged 196 
Stint, Little 190 

Temminck's 191 
Stonechat 491 
Stork, Abdim's 25 

Black 28 

Open-billed 24 

Saddle-billed 29 

White 26 

Wooly-necked 27 

Yellow-billed 31 
Sunbird, Amethyst 661 

Beautiful 671 

Collared 656 

Copper 664 

Eastern Pygmy p. 84 

Eastern Violet-backed 658 

Green 660 

Green-headed 677 

Green- throated 672 

Hunter's p. 85 

Little Green 673 

Malachite 666 

Mariqua 667 

Northern Double-collared 670 

Northern Orange-tufted 669 

Olive 668 

Olive-bellied 662 

Pygmy 659 

Red-chested 665 

Scarlet-chested 674 

Shining p. 85 

Splendid 663 

Tacazze 675 

Variable 676 

Violet-backed 657 
Swallow 401 

Ethiopian 397 

Grey-rumped 400 

Mosque 403 

Red-rumped 398 

Rufous -chested 402 

Striped 396 

Wire-tailed 404 
Swift, African Black p. 44 

Alpine 294 

Common 292 

Horus p. 44 

Little 291 

Mottled 290 



Nyanza p. 44 
Pallid 295 
Palm 296 
Scarce 297 
White-rumped 293 

Tchagra, Black-capped 622 

Black -headed 623 

Brown -headed 620 

Three-streaked 621 
Teal 43 

Hottentot 45 
Tern, Black p. 33 

Caspian 212 

Gull-billed 213 

Whiskered 210 

White-winged Black 211 
Thicknee, Senegal 199 

Spotted 198 
Thrush, Abyssinian Ground 498 

African 497 

Blue Rock p. 65 

Little Rock 477 

Olive 495 

Rock 478 

Rufous 494 

Spotted Ground 496 

Spotted Morning 4£6 
Tinkerbird, Lemon- rumped 358 

Red-fronted 359 

Yellow- fronted 357 
Tit, Black 423 

Dusky 422 

Mouse-coloured Penduline 424 

Sennar Penduline 426 

White-bellied 421 

Yellow Penduline 425 
Trogon, Narina's 300 
Turaco, Black-billed 248 

Great Blue 242 

Ross's 245 

White-cheeked 247 

White-crested 246 
Turnstone 195 
Twinspot, Brown 741 

Dybowski ' s 740 

Green-backed 756 

Vulture, Egyptian 62 
Hooded 61 
Lappet-faced 63 
Palm-nut 58 
Ruppell's 60 
White-backed 59 
White-headed 64 



122 



tegtail, African Pied 604 

Grey 606 

Mountain p. 78 

White 605 

Yellow 607 
farbler, African Reed 500 

Bamboo 512 

Barred 565 

Basra Reed 502 

Black- faced Rufous 511 

Bonelli's 549 

Brown Woodland 553 

Buff-bellied 548 

Cinnamon Bracken 514 

Fan-tailed 557 

Garden 561 

Great Reed 499 

Greater Swamp 503 

Grey-capped 538 

Grey Wren 517 

Icterine p. 72 

Lesser Swamp 501 

Little Rush 513 

Marsh p. 67 

Mountain Yellow 519 

Moustached 558 

Olivaceous 543 

Orphean 564 

Reed 505 

Red- faced 560 

Red- fronted 559 

Red-winged 542 

Red- winged Grey 537 

Savi's 545 

Sedge 504 

Upcher's p. 72 

Willow 552 

Wood 551 

Yellow 518 
battle-eye 591 

Chestnut 590 

Jameson's 592 
tfaxbill 743 

Black-cheeked 744 

Black-crowned 746 

Black-rumped 749 

Crimson-rumped 748 

Fawn-breasted 747 

Yellow-bellied 745 

Zebra 739 
Weaver, Baglafecht 694 

Black 705 

Black-billed 704 

Black-necked 706 



Brown-capped 699 

Chestnut 708 

Chestnut- crowned Sparrow 719 

Cinnamon 693 

Compact 709 

Dark -backed 695 

Emin's 696 

Golden-backed 701 

Grey-headed Social 720 

Grosbeak 680 

Heuglin's Masked 698 

Little 702 

Masked 700 

Northern Masked 710 

Parasitic 682 

Red-billed Buffalo 716 

Red-headed 681 

Ruppell's 697 

Speckle-fronted 728 

Spectacled 707 

Vitelline Masked 711 

White-billed Buffalo 715 

White -browed Sparrow 718 

White-headed Buffalo 717 

Yellow-backed 703 
Wheatear, Black-eared 484 

Desert 483 

Isabelline 485 

Northern 486 

Pied 487 

Red-breasted 482 
Whinchat 490 
White-eye , Montane 678 

Yellow 679 
Whitethroat 562 

Lesser 563 
Whydah, Northern Broad-tailed 

Paradise 735 

Northern Paradise 737 

Paradise 738 

Pin-tailed 736 

Steel-blue 734 

Straw-tailed 733 
Widowbird, Fan-tailed 685 

Red-collared 684 

Red-naped 684 

White -winged p. 87 

Yellow-mantled 690 
Wigeon 46 

Cape p. 14 
Woodpecker, Bearded 382 

Brown-backed 381 

Brown-eared 372 

Buff -spotted 373 



123 



Cardinal 377 

Fine-spotted 376 ^ da Sp ° tted 378 

Golden-tailed 371 T7 Yel ^-crested 380 

Green-backed 375 "™< 37 ° 

Grey 379 Red- throated 369 

Nubian 374 Yellowbill 261 



124